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Established 2008 Chic African Culture teaches the history of African-food recipes and African-cultures, art, music, and oral literature.

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The person who is not patient cannot eat well-cooked dishes. -African Proverb

Saturday, October 28, 2017

Mealie Potjiekos South African Vegetable Stew

Mealie Potjiekos Recipe

Mealie Potjiekos
This hearty traditional South African stew is an easy to make vegetable corn stew, just add chicken to Mealie Potjiekos for a variation on this traditional South African stew.
Mealie Potjiekos South African Vegetable Stew

Mealie Potjiekos Recipe


Explore and Understand Africa Through Her Food and Culture




Mealie Potjiekos is a delicious vegetable corn stew.

Mealie Potjiekos is a delicious corn stew.


Ingredients
3 cups vegetable stock
One 15 ounce can whole kernel corn
One 15 ounce can cream corn
1 can evaporated milk
One 14 ounce can tomatoes
1 cup chopped onions
1/2 teaspoon salt (optional)
1 teaspoon red pepper flake (optional)

Directions:
In a large pot on medium heat, add oil then sauté onions one minute. Drain the can of whole kernel corn then add all ingredients into a large saucepan. 
Simmer on low uncovered for 30 minutes. Serve warm.




Did you know?
Maize (corn) is the most important grain crop in South Africa and is grown throughout the country.

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Friday, October 27, 2017

Eggplant and Tomato Tunisian Roasted Vegetable Salad Recipe

The Truth Aboubt Reliable Affordable Electricity in Africa

Roasted Vegetable Salad
Salata Meshwiya also known as Roasted Vegetable Salad is a hors d'oeuvre recipe served largely in the African country of Tunisia.
Eggplant and Tomato Tunisian Roasted Vegetable Salad Recipe

Eggplant and Tomato Tunisian Roasted Vegetable Salad Recipe


Explore and Understand Africa Through Her Food and Culture




How to choose eggplants - Look for firm eggplants that feel heavy for their size and have smooth, shiny skins and bright green stems.



Salata Meshwiya Recipe



Ingredients 
3 large ripe tomatoes, diced
 ½ eggplant thinly sliced
 ½ teaspoon salt
 1 teaspoon cumin
 2 teaspoons garlic, crushed
 2 tablespoons olive oil

 Directions
 In a large saucepan over medium heat add oil, heat then add eggplant and spices cook until eggplant is soft. Add tomatoes, garlic mix well serve warm with traditional Tunisian bread, tabouna bread.


Did you know?
Tunisia is home of the ancient city of Carthage. Hannibal of Carthage war elephants were depecited in the movie 300.

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Tuesday, October 24, 2017

Alphabetical List Of African Independence Dates

True Facts About African Independence From Colonization

African Independence Dates
Africa also has a history of earning her independence from forced rule. African independence took place mainly in the 1960’s when her people began to assert the right to independence and self-government.

Learning Math

Alphabetical List Of African Independence Dates


Explore and Understand Africa Through Her Food and Culture




The colonizing of Africa imposed boundaries without regard to culture or heritage of native Africans. With a mix of Arabic, Danish, German, Indian, African, French, Italian, Chinese and European influences Africa is truly a melting pot of language, culture and idea’s.



Africa faced colonization, occupation and aggression from the United Kingdom, Germany, Romans, Arabs, Danish, Berbers, Turkish Ottoman Empire, the French, Portuguese, Italians, the Dutch and countless internal battles.

Diverse African Nation



A
Algeria- After more than a century of rule by France, Algerians fought through much of the 1950's to achieve independence in 1962.

Angola- In 1483 Portuguese arrive to then Luanda; Portuguese is the official language of Angola.


B
Benin- Dahomey achieved independence in 1960; changed its name to the Republic of Benin in 1975.

Botswana- Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, upon independence in 1966 changed its name to Botswana.

Burkina Faso- Formerly Upper Volta achieved independence from France in 1960 changed its name to Burkina Faso.

Burundi- In 1962, Urundi is separated from Ruanda-Urundi and becomes independent kingdom of Burundi under King Mwambutsa IV.


C
Cameroon- Was under Portuguese, Germany, British, and French control. In 1960 French Cameroon granted independence and becomes the Republic of Cameroon, 1961 Northern Cameroon joins Nigeria.

Central African Republic- In 1960 The Central African Republic becomes independent from the French.

Chad- In 1960 Chad becomes independent from the French.

Congo- In 1960 Congo becomes independent with Fulbert Youlou as president

Cote d'Ivoire- Formally the Ivory Coast, in 1985 the government requested that the country be known officially as Côte d'Ivoire.


D
Democratic Republic of the Congo- 1960 Congo becomes independent from Belgian. 1997 Rwandan- and Ugandan-backed rebels depose President Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire; Laurent Kabila becomes president of Zaire, which is renamed the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Djibouti- The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas became Djibouti in 1977.


E
Egypt- 7000 BC - Settlement of Nile Valley begins, a unified kingdom arose around 3200 B.C., Assyrians ruled, then the Persians, and then Rome, the Turks, British and in1953 Coup leader Muhammad Najib becomes president as Egypt is declared a republic.

Equatorial Guinea- gained independence in 1968 after 190 years of Spanish rule.

Eritrea- After independence from Italian colonial control in 1941 and 10 years of British administrative control, the UN established Eritrea as an autonomous region within the Ethiopian federation in 1952.


G
Gabon- Occupied by the Portuguese and French. El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba was one of the longest-serving heads of state in the world from 1967-2009 following independence from France in 1960.

Gambia- Gained its independence from the United Kingdom in 1965 and is geographically surrounded by Senegal.

Ghana- Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Ghana fought and won independence from France.

Guinea- In 1891 France declares Guinea to be a colony, separate from Senegal. Guinea fought and won independence from France in 1958.

Guinea-Bissau- 1446-47 Guinea-Bissau is an important Portuguese slave trade hub, 1879 Guinea-Bissau becomes a separate colony of the Portuguese, 1951 Guinea-Bissau declared a province of Portugal, 1951 Guinea-Bissau declared a province of Portugal. 1956 Amilcar Cabral establishes the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, 1963-74 - the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde battles for independence, 1973 Cabral assassinated the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde declares Guinea-Bissau independent and names their country Guinea-Bissau, 1974 Portugal awards Guinea-Bissau independence.


K
Kenya- 1963 Kenya gains independence, with Kenyatta as prime minister. Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo Kenyatta led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978.

L
Lesotho- Basutoland was renamed the Kingdom of Lesotho upon independence from the UK in 1966.

Liberia- July 1847 Liberia becomes independent and is Africa's oldest republic.

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (Libya)- In the 16th century - Libya becomes part of the Ottoman Empire, 1912 Italy seizes control, 1942  the French and British expel the Italians from Libya which they then divided. Colonel Gaddafi deposed the king in 1969.


M
Madagascar- From 1880-1960 Madagascar is under French rule. On June 26, 1960 Madagascar gains independence from France with Philibert Tsiranana as president.

Malawi- From 1790-1860 Malawi is a major slave trading region. In 1891 Britain names Malawi British Central African Protectorate, then in1907 Britain names Malawi Nyasaland. In 1958 Dr. Hastings Kamuzu Banda, "the black messiah", denounces the federation and returns from the US and the UK to lead the Nyasaland African Congress.  On July 6, 1966 Banda becomes president of the Republic of Malawi.

Mali- The14th-15th centuries Timbuktu was historically important as a focal point of Islamic culture and a trading post on the trans-Saharan caravan route. In 1960 Mali becomes independent.

Mauritania- 1904 France establishes Mauritania as a colonial territory and in 1958 Mauritania gains independence.  In 1976 Mauritania and Morocco divide up Spanish Sahara, now known as Western Sahara, after Spain pulls out. The Polisario front, aiming to establish an independent state in the territory, fights the forces of both countries.

Mauritius- settled by the Dutch who named it in honor of Prince Maurits van Nassau  in the 17th century. The French assumed control in 1715, the British captured the island in 1810 during the Napoleonic Wars, Mauritius gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1968.

Morocco- In 788, about a century after the Arab conquest of North Africa, a series of Moroccan Muslim dynasties began to rule in Morocco. In the 16th century, the Sa'adi monarchy, particularly under Ahmad al-MANSUR (1578-1603), repelled foreign invaders and inaugurated a golden age. The Alaouite Dynasty, to which the current Moroccan royal family belongs, dates from the 17th century, 1904 France and Spain carve-up Morocco, 1976 Moroccan and Algerian troops clash in Western Sahara. Morocco fought and won independence from France. Algeria announces the formation of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) with a government-in-exile. Morocco and Mauritania divide-up Western Sahara and 2014 Morocco is disqualified from the 2015 African Cup of Nations after refusing to host the tournament over concerns about the spread of Ebola.

Mozambique- 18th-19th centuries becomes major Portugal slave-trading epicenter.  In1975 Mozambique becomes independent from Portugal.


N
Namibia- 1915 South Africa occupies the country, 1968 South West Africa officially renamed Namibia by UN General Assembly, and in March 1990 Namibia becomes independent, with Sam Nujoma as first president.

Niger- 1890 occupied by France, became independent from France in 1960.

Nigeria- During the16-18th centuries Nigerians are sold into the slave trade in 1960 received independence.


R
Republic of Cabo Verde- 1975 Cape Verde becomes independent

Reunion- Is still currently a French overseas territory.

Rwanda- 1890 Rwanda becomes part of German East Africa, 1916 Belgian forces occupy Rwanda, 1962 Rwanda becomes independent with a Hutu, Gregoire Kayibanda, as president; many Tutsis leave the country, Forces of the rebel, mainly Tutsi, Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) invaded Rwanda from Uganda, 1994-96 - Refugee camps in Zaire fall under the control of the Hutu militias responsible for the genocide in Rwanda. 2001 December - A new flag and national anthem are unveiled to try to promote national unity and reconciliation.


S
Sao Tome and Principe- In the 16th century colonized by the Portuguese becomes a post for slave trade. Granted independence in 1975.

Senegal-  The12-14th centuries the Jolof empire ruled. In 1588 Dutch establish slave port on island of Goree. In 1960 Senegal becomes independent.

Seychelles- 1976 Seychelles become independent and are governed by a coalition, with James Mancham as president and France Rene as prime minister.

Sierra Leone- In 1787 British abolitionists and sponsors establish a settlement in Freetown for repatriated and rescued slaves, 1961 becomes independent.

Somalia- Somalia has been under Egyptian, French, British, and Italian control in 1960 becomes independent.

South Africa- 1816-1826 - Shaka Zulu founds and expands the Zulu empire.1835-1840 - Boers begin The 'Great Trek'. 1899 -The second Anglo-Boer War begins. 1910 - Formation of Union of South Africa. 1948 - Policy of apartheid adopted. 1964 - ANC leader Nelson Mandela sentenced to life imprisonment. 1990 - Mandela released after 27 years in prison. Namibia becomes independent. Eleven languages are recognized as official.

South Sudan- Independence was backed by 99% of South Sudanese in the 2011 referendum spiting from Northern Sudan.

Sudan- Sudan fought and won independence from France. Sudan, once the largest country in Africa, split into two countries in July 2011.

Swaziland- KwaZulu-Natal is the only province with a monarchy specifically provided for in South Africa's Constitution that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu and Natal Province were merged. KwaZulu-Natal is the home to the Zulu monarch, King Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu who receives a income from the government for his position. King Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu is a monarch who holds no formal political power, but fulfills the spiritual and ceremonial needs of the Zulu nation. King Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu salary is in the range of $6 million a year to cater to the needs of his royal household. 


T
Tanzania- Tanzania has been in Portuguese, Arab, German, and British control. In 1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar merge to become Tanzania.

Togo- 1884 German protectorate of Togoland established. Togo was occupied since the 1700’s by the Danish, Germans, British and French received independence in 1960 with Sylvanus Olympio elected as first president.

Tunisia- 1100 BC the city of Carthage, near the site of present-day Tunisia becomes a naval power. Tunisia has been in Roman, Arab, Berber, Turkish Ottoman Empire, and French control; in 1956 Tunisia becomes independent. Tunisia fought and won independence from France.


U
Uganda- 1890 Britain and Germany sign treaty giving Britain rights to what was to become Uganda. The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences prevented the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962.


Z
Zambia- Was known as the territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the British 1891-1923 until it was taken over by the United Kingdom in 1923. The name was changed from Northern Rhodesia to Zambia upon independence in 1964 from the United Kingdom.



Zimbabwe- Formerly Rhodesia, UN sanctions and a revolution finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence as Zimbabwe in 1980.

Fishing in Ghana



Did you know?
Ethiopia- Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41.

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Sunday, October 22, 2017

The Walking Dead | Learn All About Voodoo

What do you know about African Voodoo

Voodoo Zombies, The Walking Dead
Better known as Vodun, Voodoo probably is not what you think it is since African Voodoo is not accurately portrayed in movies, on TV or in books with the walking dead or zombies raining down destruction. African Voodoo is a nature based community centered religion.

Annual voodoo festival in Benin

Benin, is the center of voodoo worship in West Africa.


Explore and Understand Africa Through Her Food and Culture




The walking dead? Zombies?  Animal sacrifice? What do you really know about Voodoo? 



What are Zombies or the Walking Dead?

A Voodoo worshipper dances at the Temple of Pythons during the annual Voodoo Festival in Ouidah
Zombies do not have to be dead. In African and Caribbean Voodoo cultures, zombies are more mindless servants than the walking dead. Zombies are people who do the mindless bidding of a person and are seemingly possessed by them.

Zombies represent a slave to master relationship. However, the concept of the undead zombie has existed through time and across cultures, they reveal who fundamentally we fear we are, and they warn us about the collective choices we are making.

Humans have historically expressed their social anxieties through references to the dead. Humans focus on zombies because they represent the metaphysical struggle many humans have with the meaning of their own existence and the fear of death. Soulless stares and staggering walks are the typical zombie characteristics but can also explain the condition of the living. Zombies do not have to be dead.

What is Voodoo?

Voodoo religion is often practiced alongside Christianity and Islam in West Africa. Voodoo better known as vodun probably is not what you think it is Voodoo is not accurately portrayed in movies, on TV or in books. Voodoo is not devil worship; people who practice Voodoo are not evil spell casting witch doctors.

Voodoo is not a practice intended to hurt or control others and makes them into zombies; Voodoo is not dark or brutal. Not everyone who practices Voodoo does it in exactly the same way or agrees on exactly the same things.

Voodoo has no written word; it is a nature based community centered religion that supports and empowers. Voodoo is a religion originating in Africa and is practiced around the world by millions of voodoo practitioners or Voodooists.

Dah Dangbénon's python voodoo templeVoodoo is practiced differently in different parts of the world, and differs from village to village. Almost all Voodooists believe that there is a visible and an invisible world, and that these worlds are intertwined.

Death is a transition to the invisible world, so our predecessors are still with us in spirit. Just as there are differences within other faiths, there is great variation within Voodoo beliefs and practices.

Dangbénon's python voodoo temple an African voodoo priest states "Voodoo is not about using magic spells to curse your enemies," said Dangbénon, whose clan for generations oversee this temple dedicated to pythons. "If you choose to manipulate nature to harm your neighbor, it's not voodoo that harms your neighbor, it is you."

Benin Voodoo festival, about half the African country of Benin are followers of voodoo. Voodoo religion has tainted voodoo to the point where even the word makes you think of wickedness. Voodoo is as much a part of African heritage as Buddhism is to Asia.




Did you know?
Benin Voodoo festIn the 1990's, Benin's government overturned a decades long ban and recognized voodoo as a celebrated African cultural tradition promoting a national voodoo day, which is celebrated on January 10.

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Saturday, October 21, 2017

Our Spicy Baked Chickpeas Recipe is Addictive

Warning: Our Spicy Baked Chickpeas Recipe is Addictive

Baharat spicy baked chickpea
Recipe from Ethiopia is delicious, high fiber, crispy, crunchy addictive snack food.

Baharat spicy baked chickpeas

Spicy Baked Chickpeas Recipe is an Addictive Snack Food


Explore and Understand Africa Through Her Food and Culture




How To Make Crispy Baked Chickpeas in the Oven.

By
African food recipe
Chickpea seller in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
A well-known part of the Ethiopian diet is chickpeas also known as garbanzo beans. Our Spicy Baked Chickpeas Recipe is seasoned with 9 spices and perfectly baked every time.

Addictive Baharat Spicy Baked Chickpeas Recipe Snack Food

Serves 4
Addictive African snack food



Ingredients
2 cans chickpeas, drained
1 tablespoon dried mint
2 dried hot red chilies
1 tablespoon ground cumin
1 tablespoon black peppercorns
1 tablespoon dried coriander
¼ cinnamon stick
1 teaspoon ground nutmeg
1 tablespoon cardamom seeds
2 whole cloves

Directions

Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. Add all ingredients except chickpeas to a coffee grinder and pulse until mixed well. In a medium mixing bowl, toss the drained chickpeas spice powder. Spread chickpeas on a parchment lined baking sheet. Bake for 1 hour until the beans are browned and crisp. Remove from the oven and cool. 



Roasted chickpeas photo by jules stonesoupDid you know?
The Chickpea crop has been cultivated in Ethiopia since antiquity, dating back to 7,500 BC.

There are two types of chickpeas:
Desi – is a small dark seeded with rough coat, drought tolerant well adapted to low rainfall areas. Desi chickpeas have a yellow colored center. commercial production.

Kabuli – is a lighter colored large late-maturity plant, beige-colored throughout the seed with thin skin and is found mainly in areas of steady rainfall. The kabuli chickpeas are the type most commonly found in American supermarkets.

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Friday, October 20, 2017

Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About The Spice Cumin

Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Cumin

Cumin Spice, Cumin Indigenous Medicine
Cumin is an ancient spice grown in Egypt and used since antiquity in traditional healing systems.

Cumin is an ancient spice grown in Egypt and used since antiquity in traditional healing systems.

Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About The Spice Cumin


Explore and Understand Africa Through Her Food and Culture




Cumin seeds are sometimes used whole, but more commonly they are ground into powder.



What does cumin taste like? 

Cumin has an unmistakable flavor, when a dish is flavored with cumin; it has a nutty peppery slightly smoky flavor.

Where does cumin come from?

Cumin is one of the earliest cultivated herbs in Africa. Cumin is a low-growing annual herb of the Nile valley, but cultivated in the Mediterranean region, Arabia, Egypt, Morocco, India, China, and Palestine from very early times and is a strong tasting herb.

How does cumin grow?

Cumin can grow outdoors, in containers, and hydroponics. Cumin plants are known to attract beneficial insects. The plants mature in about 2 - 3 months, when the stems are cut and dried in the shade. Cumin is grown for its seeds that are used whole or ground. To harvest seeds, allow pod to ripen and turn brown. Remove from the plant and dry. Rub pods to remove the seeds. The whole stem can be cut and hung upside down in a bag to collect the seeds. Use fresh or store in an airtight container.

What is cumin used for?

Cumin is a common spice in Middle Eastern, Indian, and Mexican cuisines as curry powder and in pickles, pastry and soups. The seeds should be roasted before being used to bring out the aroma.

What are other uses for cumin?

Those who take cumin as a medicine do so for digestion problems including diarrhea, gas and as a diuretic. Cumin may also lower blood sugar levels. Cumin seeds are rich sources of essential oils and have been actively researched for their chemical composition and biological activities. In the Moroccan traditional medicine, cumin seeds are used as diuretics and given to treat diabetes and hypertension. In traditional medicine of Tunisia, cumin is given to new mothers to increases milk supply and as an antiseptic.

When using whole cumin seed, toast the seeds in advance to get the best flavor possible.
Did you know?
When using whole cumin seed, toast the seeds in advance to get the best flavor possible.

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Thursday, October 19, 2017

Mercury Poisoning Happens Every Day In Africa

Mercury Poisoning Happens Every Day In Africa

Mercury Environment Poisoning, Minamata Convention on Mercury
Exposure to mercury even in small amounts may cause serious health problems as in the case of Minamata disease.

Mining for gold in Mali Africa

Mercury Poisoning Happens Every Day In Africa


Explore and Understand Africa Through Her Food and Culture




Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80. Mercury is one of the top ten chemicals of major public health concern.

What is the Minamata Convention on Mercury?


Minamata disease is a debilitating neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning. The serious health and environmental effects resulting from the mercury pollution, and the need to ensure proper management of mercury gave birth to the Minamata Convention on Mercury. 

The objective of the Minamata Convention on Mercury is to protect the human health and the environment and releases of mercury and mercury compounds into the ground, air and water environment.

Minamata Convention on Mercury addresses the health concerns, especially in developing countries, resulting from exposure to mercury of vulnerable populations, especially women, children, and, through them, future generations and contamination of the environment for decades.

Artisanal and small-scale gold mining


Mercury occurs naturally in the earth's crust and is released into the environment from volcanic activity, weathering of rocks and human activity. Human activity is the main cause of mercury releases as a result of mining for mercury, gold and other metals and many other factors.

Artisanal and Small-scale mining (ASM) refers to unlawful mining in Africa and other countries by miners using low technology or minimal mining machinery usually under dangerous conditions. The Minamata Convention on Mercury action plan on Artisanal and small-scale gold mining is to eliminate:

1.     Whole ore amalgamation
2.     Open burning of amalgam or processed amalgam
3.     Burning of amalgam in residential areas
4.     Cyanide leaching in sediment, ore or tailings to which mercury has been added without first removing the mercury

Madagascar small scale gold mining

In addition to facilitating the formalization or regulation of the artisanal and small-scale gold mining sector, keeping statistics on the quantities of mercury used and the practices employed in artisanal and small-scale gold mining and processing within its territory, creating a public health policy on the exposure of artisanal and small-scale gold miners and their communities to mercury.

Since ASM's are unlicensed, they are not regulated and health and safety issues, pollution to the environment, and child labor are chief concerns. Accidents and injuries from mining in unsafe tunnels, unprotected open pits and use of explosives lead to severe and fatal accidents. Chemical exposure and limited access to safety equipment are a day-to-day risk for poor miners.


Mining Africa's Health


Minamata Convention on Mercury was held in Kumamoto, Japan on October 10, 2013 and on August 16, 2017, entered into force. The following African Countries have signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury:


Mining Africa's Health The Minamata Convention on Mercury

African Country
Signature Date
Algeria
No data
Angola
11 Oct 2013 
Benin
10 Oct 2013 
Botswana
No data
Burkina Faso
10 Oct 2013 
Burundi
14 Feb 2014 
Cameroon
24 Sep 2014 
Central African Republic
10 Oct 2013 
Chad
25 Sep 2014 
Congo
 8 Oct 2014 
Côte d'Ivoire
10 Oct 2013 
Democratic Republic of the Congo
No data
Djibouti
10 Oct 2013 
Egypt
No data
Equatorial Guinea
No data
Eritrea
No data
Ethiopia
10 Oct 2013 
Gabon
30 Jun 2014 
Gambia
10 Oct 2013 
Ghana
24 Sep 2014 
Guinea
25 Nov 2013 
Guinea-Bissau
24 Sep 2014 
Kenya
10 Oct 2013 
Lesotho
No data
Liberia
24 Sep 2014 
Libya
10 Oct 2013 
Madagascar
10 Oct 2013 
Malawi
10 Oct 2013 
Mali
10 Oct 2013 
Mauritania
11 Oct 2013 
Mauritius
10 Oct 2013 
Morocco
 6 Jun 2014 
Mozambique
10 Oct 2013 
Namibia
No data
Niger
10 Oct 2013 
Nigeria
10 Oct 2013 
Republic of Cabo Verde
No data
Rwanda
No data
Sao Tome and Principe
No data
Senegal
11 Oct 2013 
Seychelles
27 May 2014 
Sierra Leone
12 Aug 2014 
Somalia
No data
South Africa
10 Oct 2013 
South Sudan
No data
Sudan
24 Sep 2014 
Swaziland
No data
Togo
10 Oct 2013 
Tunisia
10 Oct 2013 
Uganda
10 Oct 2013 
United Republic of Tanzania
10 Oct 2013 
Zambia
10 Oct 2013 
Zimbabwe
11 Oct 2013 


Did you know?
Mercury is contained in many products, including batteries, thermometers and barometers, electric switches and relays in equipment Lamps including some types of light bulbs, dental amalgam for dental fillings, skin-lightening products and other cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

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