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1. No African country names begin with the letters F, H, I, J, O, P, Q, V, W, X, or Y.

2. Africa is surrounded by water but by definition Africa is not an island because Africa is a continent.

3. African tech startups raise billions of dollars annually, seven African start-ups were included in the World Economic Forum 2021 cohort of 100 Technology Pioneers: 54gene, mPharma, Cambridge Industries, FlexFinTx, Kuda, Moringa School and Sokowatch.

Ekumeku Resistance Movement During Nigeria British Rule

Ekumeku Resistance Movement During Nigeria British Rule

Nigeria became an offical British administrative land in 1901, the colonialism and invasion of British troops was a catastrophe for the ingenious Igbo African way of life, but the Ekumeku underground resistance movement attempted to right the wrong. Ekumeku War between the British and the people in Asaba hinterland lasted until 1911.

British first carried out indirect rule through native authorities, who collected taxes and performed other local administrative tasks. Access to colonial resources was determined by the cooperation of tribes in relation to British power and the Ekumeku committed an act of treason by killing a popular British officer.



The murder of O. S. Crewe-Read by the Ekumeku ignited the Asaba massacre.



Ekumeku Resistance Movement During Nigeria British Rule

A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.

The British were arrogant and domineering and from this the foundations of a resistance movement which became known as the Ekumeku was born. The Ekumeku was an underground movement of resistance to the British Royal Niger Company, British-trader, missionary and bureaucrats whose uprisings are legendary in Nigerian history.

British rule of the Western Igbo’s of Nigeria led to unfair rules against ingenious religious and political practices, the establishment of courts, and legal security to missionaries.

Igbos considered all these as unwelcoming to their traditional way of life especially since they had no legal authority or input into the life-altering changes. The state of affairs catapulted the Ekumeku forces by galvanizing the resistance movement into action in the Asaba hinterland.

Murder and Massacre

"Onye onye ocha chulu oso na-abu o fu onye anyali o gbafuo." translated from Igbo to English means, “He who has been harassed by the white man takes to his heels on sighting an albino.”

The murder of O. S. Crewe-Read, the then District Commissioner for Agbor on June 9, 1906, supposedly by the Ekumeku touched off the Asaba massacre. The British between 1906 and 1909 raised forces that randomly attacked anywhere and anybody suspected to be connected with Ekumeku soldiers. Many people were killed or put in prison by British judges at Onitsha.

Between 1902 and 1910, the Ekumeku offered a courageous and prolonged resistance to British encroachment in the Asaba hinterland.

Chief Nwakpuda lessons learned by the Igbo people

Legal enactments, special town laws and prosecution in the native courts and the British maltreatment of Chief Nwakpuda, who was said to have been friendly with the white administration in the area all came to ahead in 1912 when the colonial government in Nigeria began to construct the railway line from the interior to the coast. Neither the chiefs nor the local people on whose lands the line would pass were consulted.

In 1916 when the project was completed, Chief Nwakpuda out of rabid anger and frustration, probably occasioned by some feeling of self-righteousness, stood on the railroad track daring the approaching train to stop, and in the process was crushed.

"E kwekwele i gho Nwakpuda choro ibaa ndi ocha ogu gbuo onwe ya" translate to “Don't be like Nwakpuda who killed himself in the process of wanting to wrestle with the white people.”

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Africa is surrounded by water but is not an island, here are a few African Island facts.

Madagascar is the 4th large island in the world and is located in the Indian Ocean supporting a unique biology, about 90% of its plants and animals are found nowhere else on earth.

Composed of 155 islands, Seychelles is Africa's smallest country. By far the largest island is Mahe, home to about 90% of the population and the site of its capital city of Victoria.

Cabo Verde has a strategic location 310 miles or 500 km from the west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site.

Africa is surrounded by water but by definition Africa is not an island because Africa is a continent. Continents can not be considered islands because of their size and also by historic definition since many people who study geography define islands and continents as two different things.

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Being African in America I have grown up learning about different ethnic cultures. My father and mother are historians of African culture and history and their influence expanded my activities to several best-selling cookbooks, magazine columns, self-branded products, and a popular African culture and food blog.

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