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Friday, November 30, 2018

Reported Female Genital Cutting Countries

Reported Female Genital Cutting Mutilation Countries

How many women have undergone female genital cutting FGC (mutilation) FGM.


More than 200 million girls and women alive today have been cut in 30 countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia where female genital mutilation is concentrated. While the exact number of girls and women. Worldwide who have undergone female genital mutilation remains unknown.


In what countries does female genital cutting take place besides Africa?


Data collected in 2015 from household surveys show female genital mutilation exists in Yemen, Iraq, and Indonesia and in some places in South America such as Colombia, India, Malaysia, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The practice is also found in pockets of Europe and in Australia and North America. In most of the countries, the majority of girls were cut after the age of five. In Yemen, 85 percent of girls experienced female genital mutilation within their first week of life.


Where does organized religion stand on the practice of female genital cutting?


No written religious scripts advocate the practice, practitioners often believe the practice has religious support through tradition and traditional beliefs. Religious leaders take varying positions with regard to female genital mutilation.


Female Genital Cutting around the Serengeti National Park



In Northwest Tanzania and Southwest Kenya, December is known as cutting season. Female genital mutilation during the cutting season is illegally performed on girls between infancy and the age of 15, most commonly before puberty starts. 

In the Mara Region, residents mainly practice nomadic pastoralism and some farming but tourism is the major economic activity in the district as it is the home of the world-famous Serengeti National Park.

However, around the award-winning beautiful Serengeti National Park greatest wildlife spectacle on earth, small African communities are illegally practicing female genital mutilation.


Studying to become a doctor in Kenya Africa

What is female genital mutilation?


Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to all practices involving partial or complete removal of or injury to the external sexual organs of women and girls for non-medical reasons. 

The practice is generally carried out with a knife or a razor blade without anesthesia and in non-sterile conditions. There are four types of Female genital mutilation (FGM):

Type 1
Partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or the prepuce.

Type 2
Partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora.

Type 3
Narrowing of the vaginal orifice with the creation of a covering seal by cutting and repositioning the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or without excision of the clitoris.

Type 4
All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, for example, pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterization.

Female genital mutilation

FGM is a traditional prerequisite to marriage amongst the Kurya people who live in the area, however, it has been illegal since 1998 but the practice is commonly done in secret. Kenyans living in the villages bordering Tanzania often took their girls to be cut in Tanzania.

There are financial, as well as cultural reasons, why so many parents support the FGM practice. The main reason is parents force girls to undergo FGM because they want dowry. When girls are circumcised, their parents have already arranged for them to be married. When the girls finish the initiation, their parents introduce them to their husband, whose family gives them cows as dowry.


In some communities in Kenya and Tanzania, women who have not undergone FGM are victims of social exclusion in the belief that a woman who has been cut demands a higher dowry for her parents and she will be more faithful to her husband. The practice is illegal and the Tanzanian Serengeti government during the cutting season says there are immense challenges to stopping it. One commissioner stated, "The problem is that FGM is done secretly. It's difficult for police officers to safeguard every household to find out if it's happening or not."

However, in December 2013, approximately 38 women were arrested for carrying out illegal genital mutilation on a group of girls aged from 3 to 15. The women were arrested by the police as they performed a traditional dance around a house where 21 girls, ages 3 to 15, had recently undergone FGM.  Sentences for FGM can garner up to 15 years in prison.


Despite the arrests, in recent years, Kurya clan elders have guaranteed that no girl would undergo female genital mutilation, adopting an alternative rite of passage ritual. “We don’t want any problems with the government so we will use maize flour to signify a rite of passage for our girls instead of our normal ritual,” said James Nyamaka, one of the Kurya clan elders in Tarime.


Reported female genital mutilation Countries
Percentage of girls aged
0 to 14 years who have
undergone female genital mutilation
Reported female genital mutilation Countries
Percentage of girls and women aged 15 to 49 years who have undergone female genital mutilation
The Gambia
56
Somalia
98
Mauritania
54
Guinea
97
Guinea
46
Djibouti
93
Eritrea
33
Sierra Leone
90
Sudan
32
Mali
89
Guinea-Bissau
30
Egypt
87
Ethiopia
24
Sudan
87
Nigeria
17
Eritrea
83
Egypt
14
Burkina Faso
76
Burkina Faso
13
The Gambia
75
Sierra Leone
13
Ethiopia
74
Senegal
13
Mauritania
69
Côte d’Ivoire
10
Liberia
50
Kenya
3
Guinea-Bissau
45
Uganda
1
Chad
44
The Central African Republic
1
Côte d’Ivoire
38
Ghana
1
Nigeria
25
Togo
0.3
Senegal
25
Benin
0.2
The Central African Republic
24
Kenya
21
Tanzania
15
Benin
9
Togo
5
Ghana
4
Niger
2
Uganda
1
Cameroon
1

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