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Established 2008 Chic African Culture teaches the history of African-food recipes and African-cultures, art, music, and oral literature.

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The person who is not patient cannot eat well-cooked dishes. -African Proverb

Sunday, September 30, 2018

Simple Pigeon Recipe

Simple Pigeon Recipe

Pigeons have dark meat, very little fat making pigeon a simple recipe food. What does pigeon taste like, if a pigeon eats corn, the meat will have a sweet, nutty flavor. Pigeon meat tastes like what the pigeon eat in the wild or on the farm.


Egyptian braised pigeon with cinnamon rice is a flavorful pigeon recipe perfect for the first time pigeon recipe chef



Young pigeon birds are the best for roasting recipes since the meat is tender, as the pigeon gets older the meat gets tougher and the birds are best slow cooked. Wood pigeons are considered the top shelf of cooking pigeons recipes.



Young pigeon birds are the best for roasting recipes since the meat is tender


Roasted Pigeon with Cinnamon Rice



Ingredients:

Two cleaned cut up pigeons

3 cups white rice

1 1/2 cups whole milk

2 teaspoons ground cinnamon

2 tablespoons butter

Salt and black pepper to taste

Directions:

Boil the pigeons for 10 minutes with salt. Remove pigeons from water into a large heated ovenproof Dutch pot with butter, seasonings and brown pigeons lightly. Pour milk and rice over pigeons bake covered 1 hour. Serve.


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Friday, September 28, 2018

How to make green banana sauce for seafood

How to make green banana sauce for seafood served cold or room temperature. Make the best green banana seafood sauce recipe from the African Gourmet.

Seafood Green Banana Chutney
African Recipes by the 

Green bananas are grown and used all over the African continent; seafood green banana sauce is a popular recipe.

 Prep time: Cook time: Total time:

Seafood Green Banana Chutney

Ingredients
2 large green bananas
¼ cup balsamic vinegar
1 cup sugar
½ cup grated coconut
6 dates, chopped
1 tablespoon minced garlic
1 large tomato, chopped
2 scallions, finely chopped
¼ teaspoon ground cloves
1 teaspoon ground ginger
1 cup water

Directions

Chop green bananas, add all ingredients together, stir well and simmer 15 minutes, stirring constantly. Slowly pour chutney into canning jars, cool on counter top. Perfect on seafood.

Seafood Green Banana Chutney



5/ 4.5 stars
African food
Seafood sauce
Nutrition facts: 110 calories, 2 grams fat

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Thursday, September 27, 2018

Can Grapes Grow In Africa

Can Grapes Grow In Africa

The origin of planting and growing grapes in North and South Africa is unknown. Grape vines were planted in Mediterranean climates of South Africa around 1650's and North African countries of Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria produced 60% of the worlds wine until the late 1950's.






Enjoying a glass of wine with the girls in South Africa



In North Africa, Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria played an important role in the history of wine. Algeria's vinicultural history dates back to its settlement by the Phoenicians and continued under Algeria's rule by the Roman Empire. Winemaking continued in Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria until the Muslim conquests of North Africa in the 7th and 8th centuries.



The main wine producing areas in Morocco are located in the Atlas Mountains region, Benslimane and Meknès.  The main wine producing areas in Algeria are located in the provinces of Aïn Témouchent, Mascara, Mostaganem, Sidi Bel Abbès and Tlemcen. The main wine producing areas in Tunisia are located in Arianah, Nabul and Sousse regions. Cabo Verde Chã das Caldeiras in the crater of the volcano Pico do Fogo region also produces excellent export-quality wines.


Many Muslim government officials thought it was unacceptable for an Islamic country to be so economically dependent on alcohol production and encouraged vineyard owners to convert their land into other agricultural crops such as cereal or table grapes. 



South Africa grapes are loaded into the bin before pulping at the Orange River Wine Cellars


More than 80% of table grape production in South Africa occurs in the Western Cape region. Popular grape varieties in South Africa are Barlinka, Bonheur, Dauphine, Waltham Cross, Alphonse Lavallée, Red Globe, La Rochelle, Sunred Seedless, Thompson Seedless and Sultanas. Some grapes contain as high as 30% of sugar or as low as 10%. Chenin Blanc is the most widely planted wine grape variety in the Cape, with increasing quality of both dry and sweet styles. Other major white varieties include Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon and Viognier.


Grapes are a fruit, true berries with small, round to oblong and consisting of four seeds. Berries are often covered with a greyish, bluish, or whitish waxy coating or bloom that is easily rubbed off, having a fine layer of wax on the surface. The skin of the grape is thin and is the source of the anthocyanin compounds that give rise to red, blue, purple and black to dark purple colored grapes. 


Green and yellow skinned grape cultivars are often termed white grapes. Most grapes are woody, climbing vines. Grapes can be eaten fresh or dried or enjoyed in the form of juice and wine. 


Organic grapes


Did you know?
Muscadine grapes differ from other grape cultivars because it has thick skin, which is sometimes bitter and tough. The fruit of the muscadine ripens one by one and detaches from the plant at maturity. The berries detach from the vine with a dry stem scar unlike bunch grapes, which remain attached to the cluster at maturity.



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Wednesday, September 26, 2018

Sweet Potato Queen in Africa

How to Cook Sweet Potatoes | Vegetarian Sweet Potato Curry Soup

Easy Vegetarian Sweet Potato Curry Soup is just one of hundreds of ways to enjoy the sweet potato.


The sweet potato is queen and is not traditionally eaten in Africa, yam is king of crops in West Africa. However, in recent years sweet potatoes and sweet potato recipes are being grown and marketed for their tolerance to drought and easy cooking recipes.


Easy Vegetarian Sweet Potato Curry Soup is just one of hundreds of ways to enjoy the sweet potato.
Vegetarian Sweet Potato Curry Soup

Vegetarian Sweet Potato Curry Soup


Ingredients

1 large sweet potato, peeled and cut into 1/2-inch cubes
2 cups canned chickpeas, drained and rinsed
2 cups coconut milk
1 cup water
1/2 cup frozen peas
1 medium diced ripe tomato
2 tablespoons palm oil
1 medium yellow onion, chopped
2 garlic cloves, finely chopped
1 tablespoon chopped fresh ginger
1 hot pepper finely chopped
2 tablespoons sweet curry powder
Salt and ground pepper, to taste


Directions
In a large saucepan over medium heat, warm the oil. Add curry, onion, garlic, ginger, peppers, salt and sauté until the onion is translucent, about 3 minutes.  Add remaining ingredients and simmer 20 minutes. Serve over brown or white rice.



Types of vegetarian diets

Vegetarian diets vary in what foods they include and exclude
Vegetarian diets vary in what foods they include and exclude
When people think about a vegetarian diet, they typically think about a diet that does not include meat, poultry or fish. However, vegetarian diets vary in what foods they include and exclude:


Lacto-vegetarian diets exclude meat, fish, poultry and eggs, as well as foods that contain them. Dairy products, such as milk, cheese, yogurt and butter, are included.


Ovo-vegetarian diets exclude meat, poultry, seafood and dairy products, but allow eggs.


Lacto-ovo vegetarian diets exclude meat, fish and poultry, but allow dairy products and eggs.


Pescatarian diets exclude meat and poultry, dairy, and eggs, but allow fish.


Pollotarian diets exclude meat, dairy and fish, but allow poultry.


Vegan diets exclude meat, poultry, fish, eggs and dairy products and foods that contain these products.


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Saturday, September 22, 2018

Picking Genetically Modified Cotton by Hand in Africa

Picking Genetically Modified Cotton by Hand in Africa

Cotton production in Africa has fallen in recent years. African farmer’s production in Burkina Faso Africa lost $89.5 million in revenue in five cotton growing seasons using Monsanto’s genetically modified cotton seeds. The cotton shirt you are wearing may be made from GMO cotton fibers.



Picking Genetically Modified Cotton by Hand in Africa




What is it like picking Cotton by hand in Africa


In Africa, large cotton plantations or farms are dedicated to growing cotton. Picking cotton in Africa without machinery is very hot, hard, physical work where women and often time’s children work the same hours as men. At harvest time, pickers are expected to pick a certain amount of cotton each day or they do not earn enough money to support their families. Most work as field hands on cotton plantations. Today raw cotton is processed in the state's grain mills which the picker must pay for the use of the mill.

Cotton pickers can work in the fields from sunrise to sunset and at harvest time; they might work an 18-hour day. At harvest time, the cotton bolls are collected into large sacks and weighed. A good picker can harvest 100-300 pounds of cotton in a day. This size of harvest would consist of one-third fibers and two-thirds seeds. Harvesting is mechanized today on some larger farms.

Cotton is still King in the African country of Benin, cotton accounts for nearly 40 percent of the country's revenue. Cotton provides an income to roughly three million people however; cotton productivity and profitability have declined in recent years due, in part, to poor governmental management practices and piracy against commercial shipping in its territory off the Port of Cotonou.


Genetically Modified Cotton in Africa


Benin, which was a leading global producer of cotton between 2004 and 2006, experienced a sharp fall in production. American genetically modified cotton was grown on many African cotton plantation farms from 2007 - 2015. The U.S.A seed and pesticide company Monsanto proposed an answer to boosting African cotton trade economy, a genetically modified strain of cotton called Bollgard II.

The gluttonous incest, the bollworm destroys 35 percent of African cotton crop. The bug-resistant genes of Bollgard II produced more volume but the quality of cotton reduced dramatically and African farmers abandoned the genetically modified cotton and renewed the traditional seeds and growing methods of their African ancestors. The Benin government has also taken over the export of cotton and cottonseed. After a difficult period, production is now once again getting under way, but with output likely to be below Benin’s glory days as King of Cotton.
  

"Genetically modified cotton, it's not good today. It's not good tomorrow," said Burkina Faso cotton farmer Paul Badoun, picking apart a lumpy handful of raw cotton in a cotton field in Kongolekan village near Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso in Africa’s cotton belt. African farmers in Burkina Faso lost $89.5 million in revenue in five cotton growing seasons using Monsanto’s genetically modified cotton seeds.
Cotton in Africa

Did you know?
Bollgard II, the genetically modified cotton seeds were genetically engineered with genes from the Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria to make them resistant to the bollworm incest but the genetically modified cotton seed also produced cotton with shorter fibers, which produced an undesirable lower quality cotton fabric.


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Thursday, September 20, 2018

Turtle Soup Recipe

Turtle Soup Recipe From African Kitchens

Snapping turtle meat is considered a delicacy and in the US is very popular in Cajun cooking.


In the kitchen, we are the followers of the wisdom of our ancestors. Cooking is highly socialized and a practical art. Each day, while it adds to our food experience it should also increase African ancestor food knowledge. Now that intercommunication between distant nations has become easier and frequent, the rural and city dweller of Africa commands greater attention of culinary art. 

One art of cooking Africa offers is how to cook turtle soup. In Africa, snapping turtles live shallow ponds and streams. Boneless snapping turtle meat can be fried or stewed, however low heat and slow cooking methods have the best cooking results. The four legs and tail of the snapping turtle are dark meat, the neck and back straps are white meat. Snapping turtles can average 10 to 12 inches in upper shell length and weigh between 15 to 25 pounds. Two pounds of boneless turtle meat cost between $38 and $50. Turtle meat is healthy with one cup of turtle meat having around 220 calories, 33 grams of protein and 2 grams of saturated fat.


Healthy Soup Recipe



Easy Turtle Stew


Ingredients

2 cups boneless snapping turtle meat
4 cups vegetable stock
2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
2 tablespoons salted butter
4 stalks chopped celery
1 medium chopped white onion
1 medium chopped red onion
3 diced carrots
2 medium red tomatoes
2 tablespoons minced garlic
1 teaspoon paprika
1/2 teaspoon allspice
1 teaspoon freshly minced parsley leaves
2 teaspoons ground nutmeg
1 teaspoon ground ginger
Salt and black pepper to taste


Directions


In a large pot with a heavy lid over medium high heat add butter, melt then add seasonings. Add flour and turtle meat stirring well until turtle meat is slightly brown. Add stock and remaining ingredients. Continue to cook over medium-high heat until the mixture boils, then reduce the heat to low and simmer for 2 hours. Dish into serving bowls and enjoy The African Gourmet easy recipe of turtle soup.

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Tuesday, September 18, 2018

Onyankopon Created and Named All Things

Four Akan Dabɔne Sacred Days Akan Calendar


Onyankopon, the great one sent the rivers and the sea, who were his children, to receive honour from men and in turn to confer benefits on mankind. There are also the ever-present Bore-Bore the creator, nsamanfo, the spirits of the ancestors, OtumfoTumi the powerful one, Otomankoma the eternal one, Ananse Kokroko the great spider and Onyankopon Kwame the great one who came into existence on a Saturday but Onyankopon is the god who makes all.



Onyankopon created and named all things. Onyankopon means Onyame-a god; Koro–one; Pon–great; meaning the only great god, besides whom no other is as great.






Onyankopon Folklore Story


Long, long ago the Great One, Onyankopon lived on earth and was very near to the people. Now there was a certain disobedient old woman who used to pound her fufu and the pestle used to constantly knock against Onyankopon head causing him great pain.


Onyankopon said to the old woman, "Why do you always upset me? Because of what you are doing I am going to take myself away up in the sky ". And of a truth he did so.' 'But now, since people could no longer approach near to Onyankopon, that old woman told all the children in the village to search for all the wood they could find and bring them, and pile one on top of another, till they reached to where Onyankopon was hiding in the sky.


Therefore, the children did so, and piled up many pieces of wood, one on top of another, until there remained but a few pieces left to reach Onyankopon.


Now, the children ran out of wood and since they could not get any more anywhere, that old woman, told the children, "Take one out from the bottom and put it on top to make them reach".

So the children removed a single piece of wood from the bottom, and all the children rolled and fell to the ground and died. Now He is too remote and too powerful to directly have dealings with humankind. However, he dispenses for their benefit a little of his power, and this spirit power is what faithful servants call down specially trained to be the intermediary between humanity and the Supreme Being.



Onyankopgn Wise Sayings

Wope aka asem akyere Onyankopgn akakyere mframa.
If you wish to tell anything to the Supreme Being, tell it to the winds.


Onyankopgn amma asonomjoa katakyi biribi a, gmaa no ahodannan.
If the Supreme Being gave the swallow nothing else, He gave it swiftness in turning.


Waye Onyankopgn de okg asaman.
He has gone to the spirit world



Did you know

Onyankopon African Ashanti Supreme Being of all inspired a Japanese anime show.


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Sunday, September 16, 2018

Popular Zulu African Proverbs Explained

Popular Zulu African Proverbs Explained

Zulu African proverbs explains circumstance in Zulu everyday living, or of an event in traditional Zulu history that makes the proverb expression meaning clear.



15 Popular Zulu African proverbs and  expressions with detailed meanings




Popular Zulu African Proverbs Explained



Yimbabala yolwantunge
He is a buck of an endless forest.

A saying applied to a shiftless person, one who never continues long in any occupation.



Isikuni sinyuka nomkwezeli
A brand burns him who stirs it up.
This proverb is an exact equivalent to the English one, Let sleeping dogs lie.



Njengo mdudo ka Mapassa
Like the marriage feast of Mapassa
This saying is used to denote anything unusually grand. The marriage festivities of one of the ancestors, Mapassa, said to have been carried on for a whole year.



Ishwa lomhluzi wamanqina
Misfortune of soup made of shanks and feet.
Applied to any person who never does well, but is always getting into scrapes.



Akuko mpukane inqakulela enye
One fly does not provide for another.
A saying of the industrious to the idle, meaning that each should work for himself as the flies do.



Kude e-Bakuba, akuyiwanga mntu
Bakuba is far away, no person ever reached it.
Bakuba is an ideal country. This proverb is used as a warning against undue ambition, or as advice to be content with that which is within reach. It is equivalent to the English saying, It is no use building castles in the sky.



Kuxeliwe e-Xukwane apo kumaqasho ma-kulu
They have slaughtered at Kukwane where much meat is obtainable.
According to tradition, there was once a very rich chief who lived at Kukwane and who was in the habit of entertaining strangers in a more liberal manner than any who went before or who came after him. This proverb is used to such as ask too much from others, as if to say, It was only at Kukwane that such expectations were realized.



Qabu Unoqolomba efile
I rejoice that Kolomba's mother is dead.
The mother of Kolomba was, according to tradition, a very disagreeable person. This saying is used when anything that one dreads or dislikes has passed away.



Izinto azimntaka Ngqika zonke
It is not everyone who is a son of Gaika.
Gaika was at the beginning of this century the most powerful chief west of the Kei. This proverb signifies that all are not equally fortunate.



Uyakulila ngasonye uxele inkawu
You will shed tears with one eye like a monkey.
A warning used to deter any one from being led into a snare of any kind. It is said that when a monkey is caught in a trap he cries, but that tears come out of one eye only.



Lukozo lomya
It is the seed of the umya.
This saying is applied to anything or person considered very beautiful. The seed referred to is like a small jet black bead.



Udhle incholo
He has drunk the juice of the flower of the wild aloe.
Said of a dull, sleepy person. Wild aloe juice when drunk has a stupefying effect, and benumbs the limbs so as to make them powerless for a time.



Indonga ziwelene
The walls have come into collision.
Said of any dispute between persons of consequence.



Uvutelwe pakati nje nge vatala.
He is ripe inside, like a watermelon.
Said of anyone who has come to a resolution without yet expressing it. From its appearance it cannot be said with certainty whether a watermelon is ripe.



Uyakuva into embi eyaviwa ngu Hili wase Mambalwini.
You will find out what Hili of the Amambalu experienced.
Hili, or Tikoloshe, is a mischievous being who usually lives in the water, but who goes about as a human dwarf playing tricks on people. He milks the cows when no one is watching them. He causes women to fall in love with him, for he is of a very amorous disposition towards the female sex. It is said that a long time ago there was a man of the Amambalu who had good reason to suspect that his wife had fallen in love with Hili. He accordingly pretended to go upon a journey, but returned in the middle of the night and fastened his dogs at the door of his hut. He then went inside and kindled a fire, when, as he anticipated, he found Hili there. The man called his neighbors, who came with sticks and beat Hili till he was unable to move. They then tied him up in a bundle, fastened him to the back of the woman, and sent her away to wander wherever she liked. This saying is applied as a warning to people to avoid doing wrong, lest the punishment of Hili overtake them.



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Saturday, September 15, 2018

Seafood Stew Recipe | The African Gourmet

Seafood Stew Recipe | The African Gourmet

Looking for seafood stew recipes from Africa, make Fanti Fanti African seafood stew. The African Gourmet seafood stew is a unique spicy African seafood recipe where octopus is simmered until tender adding fantastic flavor to the tomato and seawater rich stew.


Our African Gourmet family has made this delicious seafood recipe made with seawater for over 10 years.


Seafood is the best food

Fanti Fanti African Seafood Stew Recipe


Ingredients
½ pound cleaned diced octopus
½ pound shelled and deveined shrimp
3 fish fillets (any kind)
4 large ripe tomatoes diced
1 hot pepper, chopped
1/2 cup seawater or 1 teaspoon salt dissolved into 1 cup water
3 cups tap water


Directions
In a large stew pot over medium heat add octopus, tomatoes, pepper, sea and tap water simmer 45 minutes until octopus is tender. Add remaining seafood and simmer 10 minutes longer. Serve with Ghana kenkey or over rice and enjoy your chop (food). 

Seafood Stew Recipe | The African Gourmet


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Wednesday, September 12, 2018

Akan Calendar Sacred Days

Four Akan Dabɔne Sacred Days Akan Calendar

Akan Calendar are found four special days, collectively called dabɔne, bone evil, sacred days; Fɔdwo, Awukudae, Fofie and Akwasidae.



Four Akan Dabɔne Sacred Days

Fodwo

Awukudae

Fofie

Akwasidae


The composition of the Akan adaduanan calendar cycle is based on an older six-day week. The days of the six-day week are:
1. Fo - Council day
2. Nwuna- Sleep or death day
3. Nkyi - Taboo day
4. Kuru -Political day
5. Kwa –Rest day
6. Mono - Fresh start day


The Akan calendar is based on what the Akan call forty days, adaduanan; da - day, aduanan - forty. Within the Adaduanan 42-day cycle of the Akan Calendar are found four special days, collectively called dabɔne (bone evil) sacred days; Fɔdwo, Awukudae, Fofie and Akwasidae.


Two of these evil days are collectively called adae. The other two of those evil days are Fodwo and Fofi. The 42-day cycle begin on Fɔdwo and the other three dabɔne follow in nine-day intervals; Awukudae on the tenth day, Fofie on the nineteenth day, and Akwasidae on the twenty-eighth day. It takes a further 14 days to complete the Adaduanan.


No farming may be carried out on any dabɔne but hunting and gathering of food and firewood is permitted. No funerals may be held and no news of death may reach the ears of a chief and the living shrine of his ancestors while libations of alcohol and offerings of food are made to the blackened stools the permanent physical shrines of those ancestors on an adae days. Fɔdwo and Fofi days are associated with medico-religious symbols or purification and the intervention of anthropomorphic spirits inhabiting natural objects.
Akan African Art Memorial Head
Akan African Art Memorial Head 



Did you know

Most Akan peoples live in Ghana others dwell the eastern part of Côte d’Ivoire and parts of Togo.



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Sunday, September 9, 2018

Concept of Race African Genetics and Biology

Concept of Race African Genetics and Biology

Those people and race are a perception prevalent in elitist culture and history and has no foundation in the sciences. Ubuntu African philosophy "Umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu" means that a person is a person through other people.






Love is the breath and life of the world

Dr. Sarah Tishkoff professor of Genetics and Biology at the David and Lyn Silfen University of Pennsylvania studying Africa's genetics,“If you ask somebody on the street what are the main differences between races they will say skin color,” said Sarah A. Tishkoff in an interview on October 12, 2017. This is wrong thinking because humans develop color with special cells in the skin containing pouches, called melanosomes packed with pigment molecules. The more pigment, the darker the skin and this has nothing to do with race.


Researchers found eight genetic variants in four narrow regions of the human genome that strongly influence pigmentation some making skin darker, and others make it lighter. These genes are shared across the globe, it turns out; one of them, for example, lightens skin in Europeans and Africans. The research “dispels a biological concept of race,” Dr. Tishkoff said.


There is an extensive amount of ethnic diversity in Africa and genetic evidence is now pointing to East Africa as the cradle of humanity. There is an extensive amount of ethnic diversity in Africa and genetic evidence is now pointing to East Africa as the cradle of humanity. In 1924, the Taung child a fossilized skull of a young child who lived about 2.8 million years ago in Taung, South Africa was discovered. Lucy at 3.2 million years old in November 1974 in the Afar region of Ethiopia was unearthed.

Ubuntu African philosophy "Umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu" means that a person is a person through other people
Ubuntu African philosophy "Umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu" means that a person is a person through other people

In 1987, three scientists announced in the journal Nature that they had found a common ancestor to us all, African Eve was a woman who lived in Africa 150,000 years ago. The theory is all people alive today can trace some of their genetic heritage through their mothers back to this one woman. In 2008 another species of Australopithecus, A. sediba was discovered in South Africa, it lived around 2 million years ago. Dr. Sarah Tishkoff is a professor of Genetics and Biology at the University of Pennsylvania studying genetic material variations, human evolution, and disease risk in global populations.


Since 2001, Dr. Tishkoff studies observable characteristics of ethnically diverse Africans, such as shape, stature, size, color, and behavior that results from the interaction of its genetic makeup with the environment. Her studies hope to reveal African history and how genetic variation can show for example why humans have different susceptibility to disease.


Dr. Tishkoff genetic diversity research can shed light on modern-day diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Africa also has a high prevalence of several infectious diseases including HIV, malaria, and TB, resulting in millions of deaths per year. DNA samples from around 9,000 geographically and ethnically diverse Africans with distinct diets such as hunter-gatherers, pastoralists, and farmers were collected.  Dr. Tishkoff and her team studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations.


The Khoisan people of Southern Africa was previously thought to possess the oldest DNA lineages, but those of the Sandawe tribe of central Tanzania are older. This suggests southern Khoisan originated in East Africa, according to Dr Tishkoff. Modern humans originated in Africa around 200,000 years ago and then spread across the rest of the globe within the past 100,000 years.


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Chic African Culture Featured Articles

A good teacher can inspire hope, ignite the imagination, and instill a love of learning.

A good teacher can inspire hope, ignite the imagination, and instill a love of learning.
Be the good

Mental Discovery

The eye never forgets what the heart has seen - African Proverb

Wise Words


A wise person does not fall down on the same hill twice.