Curiosity is the key to knowledge.

Established 2008 Chic African Culture teaches the history of African-food recipes and African-cultures, art, music, and oral literature.

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The person who is not patient cannot eat well-cooked dishes. -African Proverb

Thursday, May 31, 2018

North African Food

North African Food


The chief food in North Africa is couscous made of millet-flour kneaded with milk. The flour is ground between two stones placed one on the top of the other, the upper one having one or two handles by which it can be moved round. Couscous and Tagines are the principal dishes for every day, special feasts and celebrations to the Amazigh or Berber people of North Africa.


Semolina flour is ground from durum wheat and is usually used to make pasta. Couscous, often mistakenly called rice, but it is actually pasta made up of tiny pearls of wheat dough made from durum wheat. Durum wheat is very hard wheat with high protein content. Its density, combined with its high protein content and gluten strength, make durum the wheat of choice for producing premium pasta products.



Pasta made from durum is firm with consistent cooking quality. Durum kernels are amber-colored and larger than those of other wheat classes. Also unique to durum is its yellow endosperm, which gives pasta its golden hue. One cup of cooked couscous has about 176 calories compared to 221 calories in one cup of cooked elbow pasta, and 360 calories in one cup of cooked brown rice.


North African Food Tagine


North African Berber Lamb Recipe


Ingredients

2 pounds lamb cut into 2-inch chunks
2 cups cooked chickpeas
2 large onions, chopped
3 cloves garlic, crushed
2 cups tomato juice
2 large chopped tomatoes
4 ounce dried apricots, cut in half
2 ounce dates, cut in half
2 ounce raisins
3 ounce flaked almonds
1 teaspoon cayenne pepper
2 teaspoon ground black pepper
1½ tablespoon paprika
1½ tablespoon ground ginger
1 tablespoon turmeric
2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1 teaspoon saffron
1 tablespoon honey
2 tablespoon coriander, roughly chopped
2 tablespoon flat leaf parsley, roughly chopped
3 cups vegetable stock
2 tablespoon olive oil
2 tablespoon argan oil


Directions

Preheat the oven to 300F. Place the cayenne, black pepper, paprika, ginger, turmeric and cinnamon into a small bowl and mix to combine. Place the lamb in a large bowl and toss together with half of the spice mix. Cover and leave overnight in the fridge. Heat 1-tablespoon olive oil and 1-tablespoon of argan oil in a large casserole dish. Add the grated onion and the remaining spice mix and cook over a gentle heat for 10 minutes so that the onions are soft but not colored. Add the crushed garlic for the final 3 minutes.

In a separate frying pan, heat the remaining oil and brown the cubes of lamb on all sides then add the browned meat to the casserole dish. Deglaze the frying pan with ¼ pint of tomato juice and add these juices to the pan. Add the remaining tomato juice, chopped tomatoes, apricots, dates, raisins or sultanas, flaked almonds, saffron, lamb stock and honey to the casserole dish. Bring to the boil, cover with a fitted lid, place in the oven and cook for 2-2½ hours or until the meat is meltingly tender. Place the lamb in a tagine or large serving dish and sprinkle over the chopped herbs.



Berber Lamb Tagine Recipe

Berber Lamb Tagine Recipe

North African food recipe Berber Lamb Tagine from Chic African Culture has a myriad of Maghreb spices and this North African tagine recipe is best served with warm couscous, pita or flatbread.
Serves 6
North African Food



Did you know?

To the Berber people spices are very important to every dish. If there is no spice then it is not a Berber dish. Spices are the most important ingredient in Berber cooking; the most commonly used spices are cinnamon, and cardamom.

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Wednesday, May 30, 2018

South African Indian Recipe


Vegetable Indian Recipe

South African Indian Vegetable Recipe


Made with fragrant spices and filled with flavor this South African Indian Vegetable Curry Recipe will please everyone.

South African Indian recipe Shimla mirch ki sabzi is a timeless Indian recipe made of green peppers, tomatoes, onions, potatoes and eight spices. This simple South African Indian curry food recipe is a staple dish in many Durban South African Indian homes.



South African Indian Vegetable Curry Recipe

South African Indian Recipe


Ingredients
3 large green bell peppers, sliced fine
2 large potatoes, cooked and cubed
1 large onion, chopped
1 large tomato, diced
10 fresh coriander leaves
1 tablespoon ginger paste
1 tablespoon garlic paste
2 teaspoons ground turmeric
1 teaspoon red chilli flakes or to taste
1 teaspoon ground cumin
1 teaspoon ground coriander
1 teaspoon sea salt
2 tablespoons vegetable oil
½ cup water


Directions
Over medium high heat, add oil into a large frying pan, sauté onions, tomatoes, ginger, coriander leaves and garlic, together with cumin and coriander powders for five minutes. Add remaining ingredients, and cook on medium heat for 15-20 minutes or until potatoes are soft. Serve over rice.


South African Indian Recipe

Shimla mirch ki sabzi is a timeless Indian recipe

South African Indian recipe created with aromatic spices filled with special South African Indian essence will satisfy every appetite.
Serves 4
Indian South African food

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Tuesday, May 29, 2018

African Folklore Spider Webs Story

Spider Webs Master Weaver Lessons African-Folklore Story

Spider Webs Master Weaver Lessons African-Folklore Story


Find out the true story of Embu and the spider webs master weaver African folklore. If you're not a fan of spiders or spider web, you could miss out on fantastic weaving lessons in this African folklore story.



African Folklore Story Master Weaver


Spider Webs Master Weaver Lessons African-Folklore Story


Until Embu married Keloka, Embu was a great hunter, the greatest in his tribe, for he never failed to bring home game when he went hunting in the bush.



Embu used to put medicine on his spear, at least that is what he called it, but it was only a kind of fat, and then he would hold up his spear in front of him and say: “Kill, kill, spear of mine, antelope and porcupine, wildebeest and deer, Kill, kill, spear. “



It was very odd, but after he married Keloka, his spear was always gliding past the wildebeests without touching them. The fact was, Keloka did not want her husband to go hunting, and as she knew a better charm than his, she rubbed a different medicine onto the spear.



And this is what she would say: “Deer and wildebeest, Say, who shall hurt you now? By my spell you shall be Safe and free, safe and free.”



Embu did not know this, of course, and one day he went out after a big, wildebeest. He threw his spear as skillfully as usual, but it passed through the animal’s horns and struck a tree. Then the wildebeest rushed furiously upon him, and gored him, injuring him so much that he could hardly creep home.



As he lay in his house, in great pain, his friends found out that it was Keloka’s fault that he got hurt, and they punished her for it. They need not have done so, for Keloka was punished sufficiently by seeing her husband in pain, and she nursed him very tenderly.



One day she said to him, “I witched your spear to make you give up hunting, because it is so dangerous.”



“I shall never give it up while I can drag myself into the bush,” said her husband. ‘‘Once a hunter, always a hunter my wife.”



Long before he had recovered from his wounds, and while he was too weak to walk, he would creep on his hands and knees into the bush, and lie there all day. His wife tried to persuade him to stay in the hut, but he said if he could not hunt the animals, he could at least watch them.



One day as Embu was lying on his back, looking up at the trees, he saw a spider making a net, so he said to him, “ You also, my lord spider, are a great hunter.”



‘‘If you had made a trap like this, and caught the wildebeest in it, you would not have been hurt,” replied the spider.



“It would have been much better,” Embu agreed.



“I think I will make a net of bush-rope.”



Now bush-rope is the stem of a creeping plant that grows in African forests, and is very strong and tough; so Embu took the thickest he could find, made a net, and put it between two bushes.



Then in the morning when he went to look at it, he found deer, earth-antelopes, and porcupines struggling in it. “I told you it would be a good thing,” said the spider.



Then Embu made another net, and it was made better than the first, and then he made a third one which was better still, and made of finer rope.



One day Keloka said to him, “If you could weave a very fine net, I would wear it;” for like all the other women who lived in the forest, she had nothing to wear but a kind of coarse cloth made of bark, which shrank when it was wet.



Embu said he was willing to try, but he could not make the cloth of the right shape, and so he went to the spider again.



“I make my net on sticks,” said the spider; “and you must do the same thing. But why should you, who are a mighty hunter, waste your time making dresses for your wife?”



Embu hunted around until he found some very fine rope, and fixed his sticks near the spider’s web, so he could see just how he made it. Then he wove a piece of cloth that was the right shape, and pleased Keloka very much.



One day she showed him a place where some long, silky grass grew, and then said to him, “If you can make the cloth of this grass, instead of the bush-rope, it would be finer still.”



So Embu showed some of it to the spider. “I have made nets of thick bush-rope and thin bush rope. Can I make one out of this?” he asked. Then the spider growled out, “Women are never satisfied,” but he was a good-natured spider overall, and showed Embu how to weave a fine, beautiful cloth of grass, of which Keloka was very proud.



All the other women envied her as she wrapped herself in it and walked past the other huts. “How lucky she is,” they said. “Her husband is not only a mighty hunter, but he can make finer cloth than anyone else.”



Embu continued to make bush-rope nets to catch game, and was so successful that he and his friends feasted all the year round.



Both he and Keloka lived to a great age, and saw their grandchildren and great-grandchildren. Even when he was old and grey-headed, he was called “The Great Hunter;” but when they called him, in addition, “The Master Weaver,” he would point to the bush where the spider wove his silvery web: “He taught me all I know,” he said. “He is the Master Weaver!”

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Monday, May 28, 2018

Love African Proverbs

Love African Proverbs

Love African Proverbs


Love African Proverbs



Love African Proverbs


Love African proverbs translated into French, Creole, Simplified Chinese, Spanish and Portuguese. Love African proverbs teach love is a variety of different feelings that each benefit from the relationship.


Love Africa

Love African Proverbs


Laughter is exterior, but love is in the heart.

He who loves you, loves you with your dirt.

Where there is love there is no darkness.

Love attracts happiness; it brings near that which is far.

Love and smoke are two things that cannot be concealed.

Love has its reasons, which reasons it does not know.

Do not throw your hook where there are no fish.

Shelter your candle and it will give you light.

A woman who lost her rival has no sorrow.

If you love honey, fear not the bees.


Love attracts happiness; it brings near that which is far.


Aimez les proverbes africains


Le rire est extérieur, mais l'amour est dans le cœur.

Celui qui vous aime, vous aime avec votre saleté.

Là où il y a de l'amour, il n'y a pas d'obscurité.

L'amour attire le bonheur; ça rapproche ce qui est loin.

L'amour et la fumée sont deux choses qui ne peuvent pas être cachées.

L'amour a ses raisons, quelles raisons il ne sait pas.

Ne jetez pas votre hameçon là où il n'y a pas de poisson.

Abritez votre bougie et cela vous donnera de la lumière.

Une femme qui a perdu son rival n'a pas de chagrin.

Si vous aimez le miel, ne craignez pas les abeilles.


Renmen Afriken Pwovèb

Renmen Afriken Pwovèb


Ri se eksteryè, men renmen se nan kè an.

Moun ki renmen ou, renmen ou ak pousyè tè ou.

Kote ki gen lanmou pa gen fènwa.

Lanmou atire bonè; li pote tou pre sa ki byen lwen.

Lanmou ak fimen se de bagay ki pa ka kache.

Renmen gen rezon li yo, ki rezon li pa konnen.

Pa jete zen ou kote pa gen pwason.

Abri balèn ou epi li pral ba ou limyè.

Yon fanm ki pèdi rival li pa gen lapenn.

Si ou renmen siwo myèl, pa pè myèl yo.

Black love

爱非洲谚语


笑是外在的,但爱在心中。

爱你的人,用你的污垢爱你。

爱的地方没有黑暗。

爱吸引了快乐; 带来的是远近的。

爱与烟是两件不可掩盖的事情。

爱有它的原因,这是它不知道的原因。

不要把鱼钩扔到没有鱼的地方。

住你的蜡烛,它会给你光。

失去对手的女人没有悲伤。

如果你爱蜂蜜,不要害怕蜜蜂。


Black love

Amo los proverbios africanos


La risa es exterior, pero el amor está en el corazón.

El que te ama, te ama con tu suciedad.

Donde hay amor no hay oscuridad.

El amor atrae la felicidad; acerca lo que está lejos.

El amor y el humo son dos cosas que no se pueden ocultar.

El amor tiene sus razones, que lo desconocen.

No arrojes tu anzuelo donde no haya peces.

Guarda tu vela y te dará luz.

Una mujer que perdió a su rival no tiene pena.

Si amas la miel, no temas a las abejas.


Onde há amor não há escuridão.

Provérbios africanos do amor


O riso é exterior, mas o amor está no coração.

Aquele que te ama, te ama com sua sujeira.

Onde há amor não há escuridão.

O amor atrai a felicidade; isso aproxima aquilo que está longe.

Amor e fumaça são duas coisas que não podem ser escondidas.

O amor tem suas razões, razões que não conhece.

Não jogue o seu anzol onde não há peixe.

Abrace sua vela e ela lhe dará luz.

Uma mulher que perdeu seu rival não tem tristeza.

Se você ama o mel, não tema as abelhas.

Love Africa

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Sunday, May 27, 2018

Sunscreen Lotion for African Skin

Sunscreen Lotion for African Skin

Ingceke Sunscreen Lotion for African Skin




Ever wonder why the Xhosa people of Africa smear their faces white?

Sunscreen Lotion for African Skin
Sunscreen Lotion for African Skin

Sunscreen Lotion for African Skin



Why do the South African Xhosa people of smear their faces white? The white creamy sunscreen lotion for African skin is called ingceke and it is used as a sunscreen and skin ointment for protection and healing. 

The special sunscreen lotion for African skin made by the South African Xhosa tribe may look like paint for a traditional dance performance but it is simply sunscreen. Sunscreen lotion for African skin is essential in the extreme South Africa sun.


Sunscreen Lotion for African Skin
Sunscreen Lotion for African Skin

The reason why the Xhosa people smear their faces white is for sunscreen against the African sun. The Xhosa traditionally make ingceke cream which is a mixture of water and clay to protect themselves from the burning rays of the sun and used as skin ointment to treat rashes and eczema.

The popular ingceke cream is made from the fruit of the sausage tree. The fruits are ground to a pulp, burnt to ash and pounded with water to make a white paste to apply to the face and body.

Traditional Xhosa ingceke cream is not paint but the ash of the fruit of the sausage tree. The mature fruits of the bat pollinated Kigelia pinnata or sausage tree dangle from the long rope-like stalks.

Sunscreen Lotion for African Skin
Sunscreen Lotion for African Skin

The sausage shaped fruits are up to two feet long and weigh up to 17 pounds. Ingceke cream is applied on the face and other exposed areas blocking the UV harmful rays of the sun. The ingceke cream is used by everyone who comes in contact with the sun and harsh wind, from male and female and the young and old Xhosa people.

Xhosa ingceke cream is not paint but the ash of the fruit of the sausage tree. Sunscreen for dark skin is essential in the unrelenting South Africa sun. The Xhosa people of southeastern South Africa are the second largest cultural group in South Africa. The region has Subtropical weather, during the summer months temperatures range from 74℉ - 92℉ (23℃ - 33℃) between September and April. January is usually the hottest month with hot and humid days.

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Saturday, May 26, 2018

Bird King of Africa African Folktale

African Folklore Story

Bird King of Africa African Folktale tells the story of the first and only meeting of African birds to choose their king.


The birds of Africa wanted a king. Men have a king, so have animals, and why shouldn't they? All had assembled to choose a bird king to rule all of Africa.

"The Ostrich, because he is the largest bid in Africa," one called out.

They replied "No, he can't fly."

"Eagle, on account of his strength."

Smallest bird in Africa, the penduline-tit whose name was Tink
Tink is a tricky bird
They replied "Not he, he cannot sing."

"Vulture, because he can fly the highest."

They replied "No, Vulture is too dirty, his odor is terrible."

"Peacock, he is so beautiful."

They replied "His feet are too ugly, and also his voice."

"Owl, because he can see well."

They replied "Not Owl, he is scared of the light."

And so they got no further. Then one shouted aloud, "He who can fly the highest will be king." "Yes, yes," they all screamed, and at a given signal they all ascended straight up into the sky.

Vulture flew for three whole days without stopping, straight toward the sun. Then he cried aloud, "I am the highest, I am king."

"Ha-Ha-Ha," he heard above him. There the smallest bird in Africa, the penduline-tit whose name was Tink, was flying next to him. Tink had held fast to one of the great wing feathers of Vulture, and had never been felt, he was so light. "Ha-a-ha-ha, I am the highest, I am king," piped Tink.

Vulture flew for another day still ascending. "I am highest, I am king."

"Ha-Ha-Ha, I am the highest, I am king," Tink mocked. There he was again, having crept out from under the wing of Vulture.

Vulture flew on the fifth day straight up in the air. "I am the highest, I am king," he called.

"Ha-Ha-Ha," piped the little fellow above him. "I am the highest, I am king."

Vulture was tired and now flew direct to earth. The other birds were mad and decided Tink must be punished because he had taken advantage of Vulture's feathers and there hidden himself. All the birds flew after Tink and he had to take refuge in a mouse hole. But how were they to get him out? The birds decided someone must stand guard to seize Tink the moment he pokes his head out of the mouse hole.

"Owl must keep guard; he has the largest eyes; he can see well," they exclaimed.

That night owl went and took up his position before the hole but in the morning the sun was warm and soon owl became sleepy and fell fast asleep.


Tink peeped his head out of the hole, saw that Owl was asleep, and zip away up into the trees. Shortly afterwards the other birds came to see if Tink was still in the hole. "Ha-Ha-Ha," they heard in a tree; and there sat the little cheating Tink. Still to this day Tink’s can be heard singing and laughing at the funny trick he pulled on the other birds.


African Folktale Bird King

African Folktale facts

African folktales usually have sly animals and spirits as the main characters.

Anansi is one of the most beloved African folktale characters. He often takes the shape of a spider and is considered to be the spirit of all knowledge of stories.

Reading African folktales will help kids make connections to their cultural heritage.

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Friday, May 25, 2018

Urbanized Food

Urbanized Food

How urbanized food and urbanization affects African farmers and ranchers.




Urbanized Food


In regards to agriculture Africa’s rate of urbanization is the fastest in the world that can lead to increased inequality, poverty, and the explosion of slums and urbanized food. The lack of infrastructure in rural areas presents a major obstacle since without rural farmers, and communities, there is no food system. Increasing demand for food, and shrinking farming sector African diets are moving away from traditional staple crops to processed foods.




As growth booms in African countries, urbanized food and Western food companies are aggressively expanding in Africa. Africa’s rate of urbanization is the fastest in the world, along with urbanization comes urbanized food.

Selling Onions in Ghana


The world has urbanized rapidly in the past 60 years. In 1960, about 22 percent of its population, or 460 million people, lived in cities and towns, and the vast majority, some 1.6 billion people, lived in rural areas. By 2015, the urbanized share of population reached 49 percent and the urban population had increased to almost 3 billion. Africa’s rate of urbanization is now the world’s fastest, with the urbanized population projected to increase from 470 million in 2015 to 770 million by 2030.


In Africa,  60 percent of urban food demand comes from these small cities and towns. Traditional crops such as yam, sorghum, millet and teff have been ground in Africa for centuries. The traditional hand tools and techniques for threshing, winnowing, and milling have changed little in 3,515 years and are still commonly used throughout Africa. More so than in other continents, Africa is dominated by family farming, which relies mainly on family labor. Rural African diets are influenced by mainly subsistence farming specific to the geographical region. 


In some regions, rice is the main crop while, in others harvesting of wheat supplemented by fruits and vegetables comprises the bulk of daily food intake. In addition to increasing demand for food, people with higher incomes in urban areas are also creating a shift in dietary patterns. Diets are moving away from traditional staple crops towards higher-value products, like dairy, fish, fruits, vegetables and animal-proteins, as well as more processed food.

Urbanized Food Africa

Workers leaving agriculture and unable to find jobs in the local non-farm economy often turn to seasonal or permanent migration. The challenge is especially critical as, between 2015 and 2030; the population in Africa and Asia is forecasted to increase from 5.6 billion to over 6.6 billion. In the same period, the number of young people aged 15-24 years is expected to grow by about 100 million to 1.3 billion worldwide. Providing decent employment to millions of young people entering the labor market is one of the challenges the world will have to face.



The lack of infrastructure presents a major impediment for farmers to take advantage of urban demand for fresh fruit, vegetables, meat and dairy. These higher value nutritional products require storage facilities, refrigerated transportation systems and other infrastructure that many developing countries lack. Better infrastructure would not only help rural development, but would reduce urban centers reliance on imports and would improve general access to nutritious foods.


Urbanization and dietary changes in both rural and urban areas are driving the transformation of food systems. As urban areas tend to have higher incomes than rural areas, the individual urban household’s food budget is larger. Therefore, city dwellers in Malawi, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, and Zambia consume, on average, 48 percent of food produced and sold, although they make up only 25 percent of total population. 


Africa has enormous potential, to not only feed itself and eliminate hunger and food insecurity, but also to be a major player in global food markets. Agriculture forms a significant portion of the economies of all African countries. Agriculture employs 65 percent of Africa’s labor force and accounts for 32 percent of gross domestic product and urbanized food will have a major impact.

Mixing grain grown in urbanized Africa
Mixing grain by hand grown in urbanized Africa


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Thursday, May 24, 2018

Weed in Africa

Weed in Africa

Weed in Africa



Weed in South Africa

Cannabis is the most commonly used drug in the world and in Africa it is big business. Current legislation in 2018 still prohibits the cultivation, possession and sell cannabis in South Africa. The 2017 ruling that a person can grow and use medical cannabis in their own home has not yet come into effect, and therefore cannabis is still illegal in South Africa. However, not all African countries are following South Africa’s criminalization of weed. Zimbabwe in May 2018 legalized growing marijuana for medicinal and research purposes and is the second African country to do so, Lesotho became the African continent's first country to offer legal licenses to grow marijuana. Ghanaians are heavy consumers of marijuana, which is prohibited but widely tolerated.


The highest levels of cannabis production in the world take place on the African continent. Approximately, 25 percent of global production of cannabis takes place in Africa, North America and South America are close seconds. More than 11,000 metric tons of cannabis is produced on the continent each year, according to a UN survey, which advocates believe could be worth billions of dollars in a rapidly expanding global market for legal weed. The Dagga Party in South Africa won a landmark ruling in 2017 to permit smoking in the home on privacy grounds, without changing the legal status of cannabis, which means although there is a ruling weed is still illegal. However like Lesotho, the South African government published guidelines for medical marijuana, paving the way for legal licenses.

Cannabis is the most commonly used drug in the world and in Africa it is big business.


The world’s largest cannabis resin, hash or hashish producer is Africa's Morocco. Hashish is much more potent than herbal cannabis. The highest rates within Africa of cannabis herb users are found in West and Central Africa and in Southern Africa while cannabis resin users are concentrated in Northern Africa. Two main cannabis products are herbal cannabis denoting the leaves and flowering tops of the plant and cannabis resin referring to the pressed secretions of the plant. Growing weed is big business throughout Africa. Seventy percent of the cannabis herb entering South Africa is grown in Lesotho, where it is estimated to be the third largest source of income.

Smoking Weed

Did you know?
Cannabis is also known as:
Marijuana in English
Dagga in Afrikaans
Umya in Xhosa
Mbanje in Shona
Matekwane and Patse in Northern Sotho
Nsangu in Zulu

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Wednesday, May 23, 2018

Nelson Mandela Quotes

Nelson Mandela Quotes

Nelson Mandela Quotes



Quotes by Nelson Mandela South Africa most famous anti apartheid figure, political figure, husband and father. Nelson Mandela served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. Global icon Nelson Mandela was born July 18, 1918 in Mvezo, South Africa died December 5, 2013, Houghton Estate, Johannesburg, South Africa.



Inspiring Nelson-Mandela-Quotes



Inspiring Nelson Mandela Quotes

Inspiring Nelson Mandela Quotes


Inspiring Nelson Mandela Quotes


Inspiring Nelson Mandela Quotes


Inspiring Nelson Mandela Quotes


Nelson Mandela brief biography of standing up to social injustice

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela father was Hendry Mphakanyiswa of the Tembu Tribe his mother was Nonqaphi Nosekeni. Mandela was educated at University College of Fort Hare and the University of Witwatersrand where he studied law. He joined the African National Congress in 1944 and was engaged in resistance against the ruling National Party's apartheid policies after 1948. He went on trial for treason in 1956-1961 and was acquitted in 1961.

After the banning of the ANC in 1960, Nelson Mandela argued for the setting up of a military wing within the ANC. In June 1961, the ANC executive considered his proposal on the use of violent tactics and agreed that those members who wished to involve themselves in Mandela's campaign would not be stopped from doing so by the ANC. This led to the formation of Umkhonto we Sizwe. Mandela was arrested in 1962 and sentenced to five years' imprisonment with hard labor.

In 1963, when many fellow leaders of the ANC and the Umkhonto we Sizwe were arrested, Mandela was brought to stand trial with them for plotting to overthrow the government by violence. His statement from the dock received considerable international publicity. On June 12, 1964, eight of the accused, including Mandela, were sentenced to life imprisonment. From 1964 to 1982, he was incarcerated at Robben Island Prison, off Cape Town; thereafter, he was at Pollsmoor Prison, nearby on the mainland.

During his years in prison, Nelson Mandela's reputation grew steadily. He was widely accepted as the most significant black leader in South Africa and became a potent symbol of resistance as the anti-apartheid movement gathered strength. He consistently refused to compromise his political position to obtain his freedom.

Nelson Mandela was released on February 11, 1990. After his release, he plunged himself wholeheartedly into his life's work, striving to attain the goals he and others had set out almost four decades earlier. In 1991, at the first national conference of the ANC held inside South Africa after the organization had been banned in 1960, Mandela was elected President of the ANC while his lifelong friend and colleague, Oliver Tambo, became the organization’s National Chairperson.

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Chic African Culture Featured Articles

A good teacher can inspire hope, ignite the imagination, and instill a love of learning.

A good teacher can inspire hope, ignite the imagination, and instill a love of learning.
Be the good

Mental Discovery

The eye never forgets what the heart has seen - African Proverb

Wise Words


A wise person does not fall down on the same hill twice.