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The person who is not patient cannot eat well-cooked dishes. -African Proverb

Wednesday, May 31, 2017

Four Dimensions of Climate Change in Africa

Climate Change affects Africa

Climate Change Africa
Climate Change affects Africa’s three most populated countries, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Egypt in all four dimensions of food security: food availability, food accessibility, food utilization and food systems stability.

Climate Change affects Africa


Explore and Understand Africa Through Her Food and Culture




Four Dimensions of Climate Change in Africa's three most populated countries of Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Egypt.


1.   Nigeria 2015 population estimated 181.5 million      
   
2.   Ethiopia 2015 population estimated at 99.3 million  
   
3.   Egypt 2015 population estimated at 89.1 million

In Africa, climate change will affect all four dimensions of food security: food availability, food accessibility, food utilization and food systems stability.
Accessing the soil for  growing crops in Africa
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, climate change will affect all four dimensions of food security: food availability, food accessibility, food utilization and food systems stability. 

It will have an impact on human health, livelihood assets, food production and distribution channels, as well as changing purchasing power and market flows. Its impacts will be both short term, resulting from more frequent and more intense extreme weather events, and long term, caused by changing temperatures and precipitation patterns.

Change in climate may affect the availability of certain food products, which may influence their price. High prices may make certain foods unaffordable and can have an impact on individuals’ nutrition and health.  Many crops have annual cycles, and yields fluctuate with climate variability, particularly rainfall and temperature. Droughts and floods are a particular threat to food stability and could bring about both chronic and temporary food uncertainty. Both are expected to become more frequent, more intense and less predictable because of climate change.


What's the big deal?

Nigeria agriculture and desertification


Nigeria is also the largest producer of cassava in the world
Oko planting seeds on his family's farm
Nigeria is the continent’s leading consumer of rice, one of the largest producers of rice in Africa and at the same time one of the largest rice importers in the world. Rice and wheat crops use more water than all other crops put together. When it is dry, the crop water needs are higher than when it is humid. In windy climates, the crops will use more water than in calm climates. Many rice varieties are grown in Nigeria, some with a short growing cycle of 90 days and others with a long growing cycle 150 days. This has a strong influence on the seasonal rice water needs.

Nigeria is also the largest producer of cassava in the world, with about 50 million metric tons annually from a cultivated area of about 3.7 million ha. Nigeria accounts for cassava production of up to 20 percent of the world, about 34 percent of Africa’s and about 46 percent of West Africa.

Nigeria is also the largest producer of cassava in the world
Carrying water home
Desertification is the process by which fertile land becomes desert, typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or inappropriate agriculture. The region north of Nigeria is generally regarded as the most desertification prone area of the country and states within the region have often been described as desertification frontline states. They include Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto, Yobe, and Zamfara States. 

Some villages and major access roads have been buried under sand dunes in the extreme northern parts of Katsina, Sokoto, Jigawa, Borno and Yobe states. In addition, many rivers and lakes have silted, leading to rapid drying up of water bodies after the rains.


Ethiopia El Niño-induced drought


In Ethiopia, where about 4 out of 5 people depend on agriculture for their livelihood, the effects of the El Niño-induced drought in 2015 and 2016 were devastating.
Hauling water
In Ethiopia, where about 4 out of 5 people depend on agriculture for their livelihood, the effects of the El Niño-induced drought in 2015 and 2016 were devastating. Between 50 percent and 90 percent of crop production was failed. Particularly in 2016, rains failed in southern and southeastern Ethiopia were households are entirely dependent on livestock for their food and income. Ethiopia is also host to one of the largest refugee populations in Africa.

Most affected regions in Ethiopia

1.   Oromia: Borena and Guji Zones and lowlands of Bale Zone

2.   SNNP: South Omo and Segen Zones, lowlands of Gamogofa Zone

Drought in Ethiopia
Drought in Ethiopia
3.   Somali: Southern zones, including parts of Fafan, Dollo, Jarar, Korahe, Nogob and Shebele

March and April, gu and genna rains spring rains represent the main source of rainfall in the most affected regions in Ethiopia by the current drought however, in 2017, the rains are below normal in amount and temperatures above-average. 

This would mean a third year of poor rainfall and the rains are unlikely to sufficiently regenerate pasture and water points critically needed for affected pastoral and agro pastoral households to recover.


Egypt Climate Change and conflicting water rights


Egyptian agriculture is almost entirely dependent on irrigation.
Egyptian agriculture is almost
entirely dependent on irrigation. 
Egypt has little effective rainfall, it is predominantly desert, arid, and semi-arid rangelands divided into 4 major physical regions; The Nile Valley and Delta, Western Desert, Eastern Desert and Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is one of the oldest agricultural civilizations; the River Nile allowed a sedentary agricultural society to develop thousands of years ago.

More than 90 percent of Egypt is desert; it has only one main source of water supply, the Nile River. Egyptian agriculture is almost entirely dependent on irrigation. The shortage of Nile waters is a major factor due to Egypt’s agriculture uses around 85 percent of the freshwater resources. Growing water demand, driven by population growth and foreign land and water acquisitions, are straining the Nile’s natural limits.

Bithiah or "Daughter of God" was an Egyptian princess, and a daughter of Pharaoh according to the Old Testament.
Egyptian mother and son
Seasonal summer monsoonal rains in the Ethiopian Highlands are the source of much of the Nile waters, through the Blue Nile. The Nile is the world's longest river flowing 4,613 miles or 6,700 kilometers through 10 countries in northeastern Africa; Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Sudan and Egypt. 

In 1929, The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty granted Egypt veto power over construction projects on the Nile River or any of its tributaries. The 1959 Nile Waters Agreement, which Egypt and Sudan signed, gave Egypt 75 percent of the river’s flow, 25 percent to Sudan and none to the other countries. 

Egypt has little effective rainfall, it is predominantly desert, arid, and semi-arid rangelands divided into 4 major physical regions; The Nile Valley and Delta, Western Desert, Eastern Desert and Sinai Peninsula.
Collecting food for animals in Egypt
On March 23, 2015, leaders of Egypt, Ethiopia, and Sudan met and signed the Khartoum declaration or the “Nile Agreement,” which helps to resolve conflicts over the sharing of the waters of the Nile River between the three African countries. However, Ethiopia began construction of the Grand Renaissance Dam in 2015 and set to open in 2017, the dam will be the largest dam in Africa.


Expected temperature increases in Egypt range from 1.5°C to 4°C by 2050 moreover, the Ethiopian highlands and the equatorial lakes region are important for Egypt’s water supply due to their influence on the flow of the Nile it will become very difficult for Egypt to maintain its share in water consumption.

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Monday, May 29, 2017

I Am Not Quiet, I Am Plotting African Proverbs

I Am Not Quiet, I Am Plotting African Proverbs

Introverts Quiet Plotting
I am not quiet, I am plotting African Proverbs; may the Ancestors impart knowledge into you about quiet thinkers.


I Am Not Quiet, I Am Plotting



I Am Not Quiet, I Am Plotting African Proverbs


Explore and Understand Africa Through Her Food and Culture




Quiet people have the loudest minds



If you are the quiet sort, you are probably used to people misunderstanding your quietness. People may think you are shy or maybe even insecure just because you do not talk your head off to everyone.

Quiet people are thinkers; in fact, they tend to overthink a particular situation. Five African proverbs to help understand, people who are quiet may not be shy, but intensely thinking. 

I am not quiet, I am plotting African Proverbs


One does not become great by claiming greatness. African Proverb. If you are the quiet sort, you are probably used to people misunderstanding your quietness. People may think you are shy or maybe even insecure just because you do not talk your head off to everyone.
One does not become great by claiming greatness. - African Proverb

The dog's bark is not might, but fright. - African Proverb
The dog's bark is not might, but fright. - African Proverb
Fire and gunpowder do not sleep together. - African Proverb
Fire and gunpowder do not sleep together. - African Proverb
The calm and silent water drowns a man. - African Proverb
The calm and silent water drowns a man. - African Proverb
He who is courteous is not a fool. - African Proverb
He who is courteous is not a fool. - African Proverb
The plan kills; the weapon only does the deed. - African Proverb
The plan kills; the weapon only does the deed. - African Proverb


May the Ancestors Impart Knowledge Into You

I'm Not Quiet, I'm Plotting African Proverbs

·        The dog's bark is not might, but fright. - African Proverb
·        Fire and gunpowder do not sleep together. - African Proverb
·        The calm and silent water drowns a man. - African Proverb
·        He who is courteous is not a fool. - African Proverb

·        The plan kills; the weapon only does the deed. - African Proverb

African Proverbs

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Saturday, May 27, 2017

Egusi Smoked Fish Stew Recipe

Egusi Smoked Fish Stew Recipe


African Recipes by

Egusi smoked fish stew recipe is a stress-free simple African recipe to make for a family weeknight dinner.

Prep time: Cook time: Total time:

Egusi Smoked Fish Stew Recipe

Ingredients:

2 large pieces any smoked fish

2 large white fish filets
2 large handfuls sorrel leaves or spinach

½ cup ground egusi seeds

2 large tomatoes, chopped

1 large onion, chopped

2 teaspoons minced garlic
2 tablespoons palm oil or butter

1 teaspoon ground curry powder

1 hot pepper, chopped

5 cups fish stock or water

Directions:

Heat palm oil over medium heat in a large pot, add onions and garlic. Add remaining ingredients except egusi, fish and sorrel or spinach. Cover and cook for 20 minutes. Add egusi and fish, stir, and simmer 15 minutes longer. Finally add sorrel or spinach simmer 2-3 minutes serve over rice.
Selling fresh fish in Africa to make Egusi Smoked Fish Stew

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Sunday, May 21, 2017

Spiritual Enemies

The belief in spiritual enemies is common throughout the world. These ill-behaved often-dangerous spirits play tricks on humans and do things to disturb anyone who crosses their path.


Spiritual Enemies


Spiritual Enemies

Mischievous spirits are real things to many people in Africa. They dwell in the rivers, the swamps, the forests, the desert and all places in between. They inhabit the great rifts and waterfalls. Every nook and cranny of Africa may have demons, goblins, evil mermaids and disembodied parts of humankind.

Spirits travel at night, during the day, carry mysterious lights, destroy farms, steal seeds from the town granaries, sprinkle disease and famine among the cattle and people, bewitch children in their sleep, impart gifts of divination, skill and other gratuities to whomsoever they favor, or bring sorrow, persecution, or death, any victim they will.  

The belief in ill-behaved spirits are common throughout the world, a man suddenly disappears; evil spirits have devoured him. A hunter develops an unsteady aim with the gun; an evil spirit has paralyzed his expertise in shooting. A man is worsted in a bargain; his patron spirit has forsaken him. Somebody gets the nightmare; it is a demon attempting to kill him.

They may meet a man in the highway and consume him without ritual. They may meet a woman at the well and bewitch her on the spot. A child playing outside may lose its soul in game played with invisible creatures and nobody be the wiser until they sicken and die.

Mischievous spirits are real things to many people in Africa. They dwell in the rivers, the swamps, the forests.
Spiritual Enemies

Types of African Spiritual Enemies


Supernatural beings may be feathered or hoofed, two-legged animal or four-footed animal, with a tail or without a tail, in any form or with no form at all. Against these evils, a strenuous daily fight in which an elaborate assemblage of charms and fetishes must be used.


South Africa’s traditional healers believe that supernatural origins are often the chief cause of disease and have much power over the sick person. Three chief dark powerful creatures are Impaka the cat, Incanti the chameleon and Inqolobane the snake.


Impaka
Impaka is a creature resembling a cat, which has the power of getting inside any house at will. The Impaka is bred by evil spirits and then set on its mission of finding its victim, scratching the body and injecting them with poison.


Incanti
In its natural state, Incanti is a poisonous snake that is believed to have the power of changing its color or assuming various forms resembling different objects and has great powers of fascination. Anyone who comes upon an Icanti is suddenly under a trance and becomes motionless and speechless for days.


Inqumbabane
Inqolobane is a wand like snake which is believed to be the chief cause of uncontrollable high fevers. By getting inside a person, Inqolobane slowly eats the insides of his victim and causing a lingering horrific death.


Protect Yourself from Spiritual Enemies with Fetishes


Common to many tribes in Africa is the belief that the fetishes are powerful through their ritualistic carving and sanctification. Fetishes also are made of different special substances and offered sacrifices depending on the need of the person.

A fetish is an object with perceived supernatural powers used to invoke vigilant and protective spirits to drive away evil spirits, invoke the power to afflict a person with a disease or attempt to control destiny. In Africa and throughout the world these beliefs are manifested in some of the most expressive and magical power figures ever created called fetishes. 

Fetish figures throughout Africa are vessels of power that can control and influence things seen and unseen affecting destiny. Fetishes are carved with the intention to be held in the hand or set upright in the ground during a ceremony in which songs, dances, invocations, divinations, and gifts are associated with fetish devotion.

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Saturday, May 20, 2017

South Africa Mango Chicken Skewers

Grilled Mango Chicken Sosaties Skewers


Sosaties are a traditional South African kabob recipe of lamb, chicken or mutton grilled on skewers over a braai or BBQ grill.

Grilled mango chicken Sosaties skewers are one of the great braai or barbeque kabob foods of South Africa.
African Recipes by

Grilled mango chicken Sosaties skewers are one of the great braai or barbeque kabob foods of South Africa.

Prep time: Cook time: Total time:

Grilled Mango Chicken Sosaties Skewers


Ingredients

4 large metal skewers

2 pounds white meat chicken cubed

2 red bell peppers cut into large cubes

2 large onions cut into large cubes


Marinade for chicken

1/2 cup olive oil

3 tablespoons balsamic vinegar

2 tablespoons Indian curry powder

2 tablespoons mango juice

4 sage leaves chopped

1 teaspoon minced garlic

2 tablespoons mango chutney

1/2 teaspoon black pepper

Pinch of salt


Directions

Mix all marinade ingredients well and marinate chicken for at least 3 hours. Thread chicken, peppers and onion alternately on skewers basting with the marinade. Cook over coals for a few minutes on each side until chicken is completely cooked.

Chutney Marinade

Grilled Sosaties Kebobs photo by kennejima


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Friday, May 19, 2017

Who are the first, second, third and fourth world countries

Who are the first, second, third and fourth world countries

First Second Third and Fourth World Countries
By right people can pursue their economic, social and cultural development without the labels of first, second, third and fourth world citizen.
daily market in Mopt Mali

Who are the first, second, third and fourth world countries


Explore and Understand Africa Through Her Food and Culture


Citizens of the World Not First Second Third and Fourth World Countries.


·        First World refers to developed, capitalist, industrial countries, North America, Western Europe, Japan and Australia.
·        Second World refers to Russia, Eastern Europe and some of the Turkish States as well as China.
·        Third World includes developing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
·        Fourth World references stateless groups of people such as people living in refugee camps or people who are entirely self-sufficient, but they do not participate in the global economy.

Fourth World references stateless groups of people such as people living in refugee camps or people who are entirely self-sufficient, but they do not participate in the global economy.
Knufu recalling her life in South Africa
However, there is no official definition of the term Third world however; people in their everyday conversations use the term to describe poor developing countries and inferior individuals.

Alfred Sauvy coined the original meaning of third world, in 1952. Third world meant countries that were unaligned with either the Communist Soviet bloc or the Capitalist NATO bloc during the Cold War. The Cold War roughly 1947-1991 was a time of nonphysical conflict after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc the Western Bloc.

The term Third World implies counties and their people are inferior due to widespread poverty and other factors. Third World obscures all parts of a country's culture and contributions that are not of an economic nature. 

Fourth world people of refugee camps may live in long rows of tents or other shelters where most of the inhabitants rely on aid distributions and are therefore considered Fourth World because they are stateless with no GDP.

By right people can pursue their economic, social and cultural development without the labels of first, second, third and fourth world citizen.
Working on a plantation in Madagascar
By right people can pursue their economic, social and cultural development without the labels of first, second, third and fourth world citizen. The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) was adopted by the General Assembly on Thursday, September 13, 2007. 

The document emphasizes the rights of indigenous peoples to live in dignity, to maintain and strengthen their own institutions, cultures and traditions and to pursue their self-determined development, in keeping with their own needs and aspirations.


UNDRIP recognizes the need to respect and promote the inherent rights of indigenous peoples which derive from their political, economic and social structures and from their cultures, spiritual traditions, histories and philosophies, especially their rights to their lands, territories and resources. The document confirms the right of indigenous peoples to self-determination and recognizes subsistence rights and rights to lands, territories and resources. 

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Sunday, May 14, 2017

Having Faith Zulu African Proverbs

If we have faith, we can move mountains.



Having faith Zulu African proverbs shows us that there is an all-knowing being greater and wiser than ourselves. Having faith African proverbs offers hope and confidence through unceasing unshakable faith.


Having Faith Zulu African Proverbs

 
Go forth alone, you will soon find a stone on the road that you that you cannot pass. ~ Having Faith Zulu African Proverb
To have faith means to trust 
When a home is burnt down the rebuilt home is more beautiful. ~ Having Faith Zulu African Proverb
Zulu African Proverb
Those that plan without the help of the spirit must plan again. ~ Having Faith Zulu African Proverb
Zulu African Proverb
Go forth alone, you will soon find a stone on the road that you that you cannot pass. ~ Having Faith Zulu African Proverb
Zulu African Proverb
A small fire is easy to smother. ~ Having Faith Zulu African Proverb
Zulu African Proverb
A deaf ear is followed by death; an ear that listens is followed by blessings.  ~ Having Faith Zulu African Proverb
Zulu African Proverb
When heaven is pointed out a fool only sees the tip of the finger. ~ Having Faith Zulu African Proverb
Zulu African Proverb

Having Faith Zulu African Proverbs


1.   When a home is burnt down the rebuilt home is more beautiful. –Zulu Proverb

2.   Those that plan without the help of the spirit must plan again. – Zulu Proverb

3.   Go forth alone, you will soon find a stone on the road that you that you cannot pass. –Zulu Proverb

4.   A small fire is easy to smother. – Zulu Proverb

5.   A deaf ear is followed by death; an ear that listens is followed by blessings.  –Zulu Proverb

6.   When heaven is pointed out a fool only sees the tip of the finger. – Zulu Proverb

The Zulu hold their traditional culture in high esteem, preserving many of their traditions, rituals beliefs and ceremonies.
The Zulu hold their traditional culture in high esteem, preserving many of their traditions, rituals beliefs and ceremonies. 


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Saturday, May 13, 2017

Only Place in the World Where Four Countries Meet

Only Place in the World Where Four Countries Meet

Africa quadripoint
Kazungula Ferry unites four corners of Namibia, Zambia, Botswana and Zimbabwe of Africa.
Kazungula Ferry unites four corners the only place in the world where four countries meet Namibia, Zambia, Botswana and Zimbabwe of Africa.

Only Place in the World Where Four Countries Meet


Explore and Understand Africa Through Her Food and Culture




Kazungula Bridge is situated where the borders of 4 African countries meet, Zambia, Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe. The Kazungula Bridge created a link between Botswana and Zambia across the Zambezi River that flows into the famous Chobe River.

Kazungula Ferry unites four corners of Namibia, Zambia, Botswana and Zimbabwe of Africa.
Kazangula ferry engines
The Kazungula public ferry or pontoon service (a flotation device able to float itself as well as a heavy load) is driven by a side mounted diesel engine, transports a few vehicles at a time across the river. The border crossing is the only place in the world where four countries come close uniting at a quadripoint. 

A quadripoint is a point on the Earth that touches the border of four distinct territories. Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Zambia are believed to be a quadripoint however, the countries of Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana actually only meet.

The ferry at Kazangula provides transportation to people and on average, 70 trucks cross with the ferry per day. About 100 trucks on both sides of the ferry crossing take up to two weeks before they are able to cross the Zambezi River. The Kazungula Ferry is one of the largest ferries in south-central Africa, having a capacity of 70 tons and runs between Kazungula, Zambia and Kasane, Botswana.


In 2003 the Kazangula ferry capsized and was the site of a disaster where 18 people drowned.
Kazungula public ferry or pontoon service
In 2003 the Kazangula ferry capsized and was the site of a disaster where 18 people drowned. In order to alleviate the poor transportation issues, Kazungula Bridge project was planned in 2007 as much needed infrastructure transportation plan on the Zambezi River and to the surrounding African countries of Botswana and Zambia. 

The Kazungula Bridge is a multi-national project on the North-South corridor on the Zambezi River. The bridge construction is expected to take four years at a cost of US $259 million. Beginning in 2014, the project is being funded by loans from the African Development Bank, the Japan International Cooperation Agency as well as contributions from both the Governments of Zambia and Botswana according to the African Development Bank Group.

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