Curiosity is the key to knowledge.

Established 2008 Chic African Culture teaches the history of African-food recipes and African-cultures, art, music, and oral literature.

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The person who is not patient cannot eat well-cooked dishes. -African Proverb

Friday, October 31, 2014

Moroccan Amalou Almond Butter Spread with Argan Oil Recipe


Argan oil is used much like olive oil, for cooking, beauty products, and medicines. You can buy cooking argan oil from specially food stores to create Moroccan Amalou Almond Butter Spread.

Moroccan Amalou Almond Butter Spread with Argan Oil

Moroccan Amalou Almond Butter Spread with Argan Oil Recipe  
African recipes by African Gourmet
 
Buy cooking argan oil from specially food stores to create Moroccan Amalou Almond Butter Spread.


Prep time: Cook time: 0 Total time: 15


Moroccan Amalou Almond Butter Spread with Argan Oil Recipe

Ingredients

¼ cup crushed unsalted almonds
¼ teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons honey
2 tablespoon argan oil

Directions
Mix all ingredients well and store in an airtight container in the refrigerator.  Use like peanut butter on bread, crackers, celery, apples etc...
 

Moroccan amalou almond butter spread recipe photo by julesstonesoup



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Tuesday, October 28, 2014

African Diaspora Marketplace Business Plan Competition 2014

The first African Diaspora Marketplace Business Plan Competition in 2009 received 733 business proposals. For information about previous African Diaspora Marketplace Competitions for 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 visit the Diaspora Marketplace
 

Established in 2009 by The U.S. Agency for International Development and Western Union, African Diaspora Marketplace (ADM) aims to encourage sustainable economic growth and employment by supporting African diaspora entrepreneurs. ADM entrepreneurs are individuals with demonstrable connections to or experience in Africa, and who have innovative and high-impact start-ups or established businesses on the
continent.




Details on the African Diaspora Marketplace III Business Plan Competition Launch

USAID and Western Union Announce Official Launch of the African Diaspora Marketplace III Business Plan Competition | U.S. Agency for International Development

Good Luck!


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Monday, October 27, 2014

Do not insult a crocodile while your foot is still in the water

Do not insult a crocodile while your foot is still in the water is an African Proverb. African proverbs express the timeless wisdom of African people.


Do not insult a crocodile while your foot is still in the water

Do not insult a crocodile while your foot is still in the water 

More wise sayings on learning when to speak and when to stay silent



“A hog that has wallowed in the mud seeks a clean person to rub against”


“Boasting is not courage”


“It is easy to cut to pieces a dead elephant”


“Even silence speaks”


“He who has done something in secret, and sees people talking together, thinks they are talking of his action”


“A man with a cough can never conceal himself”


“Swallow your pride occasionally, it's non-fattening”


“Be mindful of humility: the gale that breaks the pine does not bruise the violet.”


A hog that has wallowed in the mud seeks a clean person to rub against

African proverb

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Saturday, October 25, 2014

Umfino Vegetarian African Meal

Page Title

South African Umfino Healthy African-Food in 30-minutes. Umfino is a mixture of maize meal (corn meal) and vegetables cooked in one pot. Umfino is a time-honored traditional meal that's inexpensive and easy to make.

Umfino Vegetarian African Meal

Umfino Vegetarian African Meal
African recipes by African Gourmet

Umfino is a delicious time-honored traditional meal of maize meal, cabbage, spinach and onions cooked in one pot. Umfino is a African recipe that's inexpensive and easy to make.

Prep time: Cook time: Total time:
 
Ingredients:
1 medium shredded red cabbage
4 handfuls of spinach
2 chopped spring onions
3 cups vegetable broth
2 tablespoons butter
1 cup brown rice
1 cup corn meal
Salt and pepper to taste

Directions:
In a large saucepan add vegetables, butter and broth, cook for 10 minutes. Add corn meal and rice stir well cook over low heat for 20 minutes, stirring occasionally, dish will be thick add broth if necessary. Serve warm.


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Thursday, October 23, 2014

When a man is stung by a bee he does not destroy all beehives



 African Proverb



The meaning of the proverb is just because one set of people may have caused harm or unhappiness in your life that does not mean everyone will hurt you. You have a choice every day to either focus on what separates or focus on what holds together. Everything and everyone you hate is written across your heart, in the end, you are causing more pain to yourself than the people you despise.


When a man is stung by a bee he does not destroy all beehives





A crab walks, so walks his children. - African Proverb from Liberia


Being a force for good, Ujima, in someone's life can help build a lasting community bond. When you help others, you give off positive vibes, which can rub off on your peers and improve your friendships, according to a study by the National Institutes of Health.


Both parties will contribute to maintaining a mutually beneficial dynamic. Whether with a large group of people in a volunteer organization, or just between two friends exchanging words of advice, helping people creates a feeling of community. 


“Face-to-face activities such as volunteering at a drop-in center can help reduce loneliness and isolation,” according to the Mental Health Foundation. Kindness is contagious, according to a study by researchers at University of California, Los Angeles, and University of Cambridge and University of Plymouth in the United Kingdom.


“When we see someone else help another person it gives us a good feeling,” the study states, “Which in turn causes us to go out and do something altruistic ourselves.”


How do you pronounce Ujima?

Ujima is a Swahili healing word pronounced OOO-G-MA. Ujima is collective work and responsibility; to build and maintain our community, while working with others to solve our problems.



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Wednesday, October 22, 2014

Southwestern Morocco Making Argan Oil

Argan oil is used for cooking, making beauty products, and medicines throughout Africa's Morocco and the world. 


Argan Fruits Photo by Good MorningThe multipurpose argan tree is a very common tree native to southwestern Morocco. The trunk and branches of the tree is used for firewood, the leaves used to create medicine but the almond-sized fruits are the star of the show. The tree is prized for its fruits that contain kernels which are processed for their much beloved oil.


Grinding Argan Seeds Photo by tomaszd
Argan oil is used much like olive oil, for cooking, beauty products, and medicines. Argan oil extraction is a difficult, time-consuming, and labor-intensive process. Berber women manually harvest the fruit between June and August, which are the hottest season in Morocco. Once the fruit is gathered it is left in the sun to dry for a few weeks. The Argan fruit covering dries out turning a brownish coffee color and the covering is now easy to remove extracting the prized oval shape seed.

Argania spinosa is the scienctific name for the evergreen argan tree grown for its almond shaped fruits that contain the highly esteemed seeds which contain the valued argan oil. In the past argan fruits were fed to goats, the nut recovered from the animal dung and the oil extracted from the seeds. However, presently in many areas the argan fruit is gathered manually and the oil from the nut extracted by hand machines.

Did you know...?
Goats love to climb the argan tree to eat the argan fruits

Goats are excellent climbers of the argan tree photo by Grand Parc Bordeaux France















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Tuesday, October 21, 2014

South African Pumpkin Roti Flatbread

Roti is a flatbread many South Africans consider a staple food. Roti is similar to a Spanish flour tortilla and eaten in a similar way. Recipes for appetizers, snacks, entrees, and even desserts all start with a roti. Making homemade roti is the perfect time to use your infused oils and add that extra African flair to your meal.


South African Pumpkin Roti Flatbread

Photo by CIMMYT
Ingredients:
1 cup canned mash pumpkin
2 ½ cups Durum wheat flour (you can use regular wheat flour or all-purpose the texture will be different)
Pinch of salt


Directions:
Mix flour and salt then add pumpkin to make dough by hand. Add water or more flour depending on the dough’s consistency. The dough should feel slightly sticky to the touch but not stick to your hands. Knead the dough and roll it into small balls of equal sizes. On medium heat add one tablespoon of oil to a large frying pan or griddle. Roll out the dough into round shapes using rolling pin. Place rolled dough into the hot pan. Cook until light brown and flip to lightly brown the other side. Remove from heat and cover with a damp kitchen towel. Add more oil to the pan as needed.

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Monday, October 20, 2014

Akotonshi Ghanaian Stuffed Crabs

Stuffed Crabs recipe

Stuffed Crabs recipe
boil your own crabs for this recipe simply remove the large shell, clean and stuff.

Ghanaian cuisine has diverse traditional dishes one of which is Akotonshi or Ghanaian Stuffed Crabs.

Explore and Understand Africa Through Her Food and Culture



You can make your own little “imitation” crab shells by forgoing the crab shells using large hollowed out red tomato, a large red grilled bell pepper or use an attractive red baking dish.


Akotonshi Ghanaian Stuffed Crabs



African recipes by African Gourmet

Ghanaian cuisine has diverse traditional dishes one of which is Akotonshi or Ghanaian Stuffed Crabs. 

Prep time: Cook time: Total time:
 
Ingredients
2 cups crab meat or imitation crab meat

24 small fresh shrimp, peeled, deveined  

2 medium size ripe tomatoes, finely chopped

2 bunches of green onions, chopped 

3 cups tomato puree

½ teaspoon salt

1 teaspoon onion power

1 teaspoon ginger powder

1 tablespoon tomato paste

1 teaspoon red pepper flakes

1 sprig rosemary, chopped

8 crab shells or 12 hollowed baked out tomatoes

Directions

Add all ingredients into a large pot just long enough to cook shrimp about 3-5 minutes. Spoon mixture into clean crab shells or baked tomatoes, garnish with green onions.


Did you know…?

You can stuff a hot chili pepper with the crab mixture for your chili-head friend who loves ghost peppers.

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Sunday, October 19, 2014

Tropical PawPaw Papaya Relish Recipe

Tropical PawPaw Papaya Relish Recipe

Papaya relish, Papaya recipe
Making tropical pawpaw papaya relish unique recipe using a fruit with a sweet taste, vibrant color, and the wide variety of health benefits cannot help but make the best papaya relish ever.
Tropical PawPaw also known as Papaya

There are countless Papaya Recipes from sweet to savory, Tropical PawPaw Papaya Relish Recipe incorporates both flavors.


Explore and Understand Africa Through Her Food and Culture




Fun unique papaya recipe from the food and nutrition experts at Chic African Culture. This papaya recipe is different than the ones you usually make.

Tropical PawPaw Papaya Relish Recipe

Easy Tropical Papaya Relish
African Recipes by

This easy sweet and savory Tropical African PawPaw Papaya Relish recipe is made with ripe papaya, onions, ginger, cloves, and raisins. Serve Tropical African PawPaw Papaya Relish over grilled, baked or fried fish.  

Prep time: Cook time: Total time:

Ingredients
1 large ripe papaya, seeded, peeled and sliced
½ cup raisins
1 cup diced red onions
¼ cup minced fresh ginger 
½ cup papaya juice
¼ cup white distilled vinegar 
½ teaspoon ground cloves
½ cup granulated sugar

Directions

Add all ingredients into a large saucepan. Simmer on medium low for 10-15 minutes until papaya is tender. Allow to cool and store in an airtight container in the refrigerator at least 24 hours before serving. Serve over grilled, baked or fried fish. 




Tropical African PawPaw Relish
Did you know?
Papaya seeds have antioxidant properties and compounds that may kill parasites and studies have shown papayas flesh helps to fight inflammation.

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Saturday, October 18, 2014

Isijingi Easy Pumpkin Zulu Recipe

Zulu Recipe


Isijingi is a Zulu recipe of cornmeal and pumpkin, this African food recipe will be the star of any table. Isijingi is delicious, full of flavor and spice lovingly prepared by Zulu families for generations.

Isijingi Easy Pumpkin Zulu Recipe 

Ingredients

3 cups of canned pumpkin

3/4 cup cornmeal

Isijingi Easy Pumpkin African Zulu Side Dish

2 cups half and half  

½ stick unsalted butter

Salt to taste

Directions

Add all ingredients to a large pot and simmer for about 15 minutes, stirring constantly. Serve hot as you would sweet potatoes or mashed potatoes.


 


If you do not plan on gaining weight this holiday season then try our lighter recipe version of Isijingi that will greatly reduce the amount of calories in this dish.

Healthy Isijingi

Ingredients

Isijingi Easy Pumpkin African Zulu Side Dish

3 cups of canned pumpkin

1/3 cup cornmeal

1 cup unsweet apple juice

1 cup applesauce or ½ cup Greek yogurt

Salt to taste

 Directions

Add all ingredients to a large pot and simmer for about 8-10 minutes, stirring constantly. Serve hot as you would sweet potatoes or mashed potatoes.


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Thursday, October 16, 2014

Witblits White Dog-South African Moonshine

Witblits Moonshine from South Africa. Whatever you call it; firewater, n dop brandewyn, moonshine, witblits, donkey dop, white dog this powerful sundowner (alcoholic drink) made from grapes will surely cause anyone a babalas, that means hangover in Afrikaans.



Philippolis is the oldest settlement in the Free State province of South Africa and is quiet most of the year. However, in April it’s time to celebrate a local tradition of distilling Afrikaans "white lightning" at the Philippolis Witblits Festival. Witblits is made from grapes and is an undiluted homemade brew that does not involve any “calming down” therefore Witblits is not the smoothest brew and the alcohol content of the clear brandy can reach up to 70-80%.
Witblits Moonshine from South Africa photo by trevorhpittman
Distinctive family recipes and small batch manufacturing of Witblits means there is great variety in the manufacturing of white dog. In most homemade brews, a “still” is used to create the product. Fire heats up the brew mixture in the tank, the steam rises through copper head before the liquid slowly flows down coiled tubes dripping out of the tap, into a bucket.

In 1924 there became a  monopoly on brandy production however small farmers were allowed to create their own home brew usually from the left over fruit on farms. Some museums in South Africa have special liquor licenses to distill Witblits as a working exhibit to collect money for the museum.


Did you know…?

A popular Witblits drink is the Prince Albert Cocktail made of a shot of Witblits and pomegranate juice over crushed ice.



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Wednesday, October 15, 2014

Ethiopian Alecha Healthy-African Soup

Alecha is an Ethiopian stew that is not spicy. Unlike Ethiopian-Doro-Wat stew, Alecha is a mild soup packed with vegetables and seasonings.


If you cannot handle spice and need a gentle tasting African soup then make, Ethiopian-Alecha one of the healthiest African Soup.



Healthy Alecha Ethiopian Soup Recipe


Ingredients
Healthy Alecha Ethiopian Soup Recipe
Healthy Alecha Ethiopian Soup Recipe
1 small head cabbage, shredded
2 onions, sliced
2 cups baby carrots
2 large tomatoes, diced
1 large white potato, finely diced
1 green pepper, finely chopped
1 tablespoon minced garlic
½ teaspoon chili powder
Salt and pepper to taste
2 tablespoons oil
8 cups water

Directions
In a large pot with a lid, lightly sauté onions with garlic add all ingredients to the pot cover and simmer for one hour. Serve with Ethiopian Injera bread.

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Tuesday, October 14, 2014

West African Anansi Folktale One good meal deserves another

West African folktale one good meal deserves another is a popular Anansi African folktale. 


African folktale

African folktales are stories forming part of an oral storytelling tradition shaped by the tongues of African elders passed down from one generation to the next. Read with your child and share wonderful African folktales. Children enjoy listening to many types of African folktales learning from the wisdom and rich tradition of African storytelling. Folktales reflect the morals, superstitions and customs of the African people.

Anansi the Spider hated to share


When Turtle came to his house at mealtime, he said, "I can't give you food until you've washed your dusty feet!"

Turtle licked his lips when he saw the big plate of steaming food, but politely walked to the stream to wash.

When he returned, the plate was empty.

"Good meal," Anansi said, patting his full stomach.


"One good meal deserves another!" said Turtle.

"Come to my house for dinner tomorrow."

Turtle fixed a fine dinner at the bottom of the river. "Come on down and eat!" he said.

Anansi filled his jacket pockets with stones so that he would be weighted down enough to stay at the river's bottom and eat.

"It's impolite to wear a jacket to dinner!" Turtle said, "Take it off!"


However, when greedy Anansi took off his jacket, he floated back up to the surface of the water and hungrily watched Turtle eat his fill!



Have you ever wondered...
How Tribal Marks Came To Be Used an African folktale

African Folktale

African Folktales three facts

African folktales usually have sly animals and spirits as the main characters.

Anansi is one of the most beloved African folktale characters. He often takes the shape of a spider and is considered to be the spirit of all knowledge of stories.

Reading African folktales will help kids make connections to their cultural heritage.



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Friday, October 10, 2014

Sweet Tej Ethiopian Honey Wine

Tej is or honey wine is a favorite brew in Ethiopia and Eritrea, traditional Tej wine is made by boiling the gesho plant’s stems with honey and fermented over a long period of time. Our easy version of Tej Ethiopian Honey Wine uses dry white wine and honey mixed together to create a sweet tasting sipping wine perfect for a signature wedding cocktail.




Quick and Easy Tej Ethiopian Honey Wine photo by Quinn DombrowskiTej Ethiopian Honey Wine

Ingredients
3 cups good quality dry white wine
1 cup water
1/4 cup honey

Directions
Add honey to water and mix well until fully incorporated. Chill mixture until cold then add wine, mix well, chill and serve.


Did you know…?

Traditional Tej wine is made in small batches and is a sipping wine due to it's sweet taste.
 

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Wednesday, October 8, 2014

Gemma Kerrie a Healthy African Dinner in 30-minutes

A Twist on the South African Stew Gemma Kerrie that is usually cooked with beef. Instead, we are using fish to makeover Gemma Kerrie stew into a Healthier African Dinner in 30-minutes.


Fish Geema Kerrie Healthy South African Stew Recipe


Ingredients
2 large fillet of any fish
2 large tomatoes, diced
1 small onion, finely chopped
Fish Geema Kerrie Healthy South African Stew Recipe
 Fish Geema Kerrie Healthy
South African Stew Recipe
1 teaspoon ginger
2 teaspoons minced garlic
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 hot chili pepper
2 teaspoon curry powder
1/2 teaspoon cumin
1/4 teaspoon cinnamon
1 bay leaf
6 cups water
Directions
In a large pot with a lid add all ingredients, cover, simmer for about 30 minutes, or until well cooked. Remove from heat, and serve with rice or roti bread. Fish Geema Kerrie is even more delicious the next day.

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Saturday, October 4, 2014

Where is it Illegal to be Gay in Africa?

Where is it Illegal to be Gay in Africa?


Illegal to be Gay

Laws affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) in Africa and where it is illegal to be Gay. The listing includes treatment of homosexuality in the criminal laws of 49 out of 54 African nations and the conditions on what the homosexual criminal penalties cover for homosexual acts involving adults.




Where Gay Love Is Illegal



Homosexuality in Africa, where is it illegal to be gay?

Illegal to be Gay in Africa


Country
Where is it Illegal to be Gay in Africa
Algeria
Any person guilty of a homosexual act is punished with a term of imprisonment of between two months and two years and a fine of between 500
and 2000 Algerian Dinars (about US$6.40–$25.60).
Angola
The Angolan Penal Code is silent with regard to the criminalization of homosexuality. However, article 71(4) determines that security measures are applicable to people who habitually practice “acts against nature.” Article 70 of the Penal Code lists the security measures, which include confinement in an insane asylum; confinement in a workhouse or agricultural colony; probation; pledge of good conduct; and disqualification from the practice of a profession. According to the Angolan Ministry of Justice, a proposal for a new Penal Code will be sent to the Council of Ministers in March 20143 that would no longer have these provisions.
Benin
Article 88 of the 1996 Penal Code punishes homosexual acts with one to three years of imprisonment and a fine of of 100,000–500,000 (about US$210–$1,050).  However, it appears that no one has ever been convicted under this law.
Botswana
Some homosexual acts are illegal.  The Botswana Penal Code provides that “[a]ny person who … has carnal knowledge of any person against the order of nature ... or permits any other person to have carnal knowledge of him or her against the order of nature, is guilty of an offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years.” Attempt is also an offense, and punishable on conviction with up to five years in prison.8 However, in order for carnal knowledge (sexual intercourse) to be against the “order of nature,” there must be anal penetration by a sex organ.9   Therefore, while sodomy of any form, whether it involves a heterosexual or homosexual couple is an offense under this provision, a homosexual sexual act that does not involve anal penetration with a sex organ may be legal.
Burkina Faso
No laws against homosexual relations.
Burundi
A 2009 revision of the Penal Code made homosexual relations punishable by three months to two years of imprisonment and/or by a fine of BIF50,000–100,000 (about US$33– $66).
Cameroon
Same-sex sexual intercourse is punishable by six months to five years of imprisonment, and a fine of 20,000–200,000 (about US$42–$419).
Cape Verde
The Cape Verdean Penal Code does not criminalize homosexual acts.
Central African Republic
“Public expression of love” between persons of the same sex is punishable by six months to two years of imprisonment, or a fine of 150,000–600,000.  However, this law does not seem to be enforced by the
police.
Chad
None found.
Comoros
Homosexual acts are punishable by one to two years of imprisonment and a fine of  50,000–1,000,000 (about US$140–$2,792).
Congo (Democratic Republic of the)
Homosexual acts are not explicitly illegal, but article 172 of the Penal Code, which prohibits “violations of morality” under penalty of up to five years of imprisonment, could be used
against gay and lesbian individuals.
Congo
No information found.
Côte d’Ivoire
No laws against homosexual relations.
Djibouti
Homosexual acts appear to be legal, as there does not seem to be any provision of the Penal Code of Djibouti dealing with these issues.
Egypt
Homosexuality is punished as a “scandalous act,” with detention for up to one year and/or a fine of up to 300 EGP (about US$43).
Eritrea
Homosexuality is illegal.  Eritrean law states that a person who “performs with another person of the same sex an act corresponding to the sexual act, or any indecent act, is punishable with simple
imprisonment.”  The terms “sexual act” and “indecent act” are not defined. When a person is convicted under this provision, the court has the discretion to impose a sentence ranging from ten days to three years of imprisonment.
Ethiopia
Homosexuality is illegal.  The country’s law states that “whoever performs with another person of the same sex a homosexual act, or any other indecent act, is punishable with simple imprisonment.”   The law does not provide definitions of the terms “homosexual act” and “indecent act.” Although simple imprisonment generally entails a prison sentence ranging from ten days to three years, courts are authorized to impose higher sentences (up to five years of imprisonment) in cases of recidivism.
Gabon
Homosexual acts appear to be legal, as there does not seem to be any provision of the Gabonese Penal Code dealing with these issues.
Gambia
Homosexuality is illegal.  The country’s Criminal Code states that a “person who has carnal knowledge of any person against the order of nature … or permits any person to have carnal knowledge of him or her against the order of nature” commits a felony known as unnatural offense, and on conviction is punishable by a fourteen-year prison term.29   An attempt to commit an unnatural offense is also a felony, on conviction, punishable by seven years of imprisonment.30   In addition, the Code criminalizes what it calls “indecent practices”: anyone who “commits an act of gross indecency with another” in public or in private or “procures” or “attempts to procure” another to commit such act with him/herself or with another person commits a felony, and on conviction is punishable by a five- year prison term. The Criminal Code provides definitions for certain terms.  The term “carnal knowledge of any person against the order of nature” includes:
a)   Carnal knowledge of the person through the anus or mouth of the person;
b)   Inserting any object or thing into the vulva or anus of the person for the purpose of stimulating sex; and
c)   Committing any other homosexual act with the person.
An act of gross indecency includes any homosexual act.   However, the term “homosexual act” is not defined.
 Ghana
Ghana criminalizes sodomy.  Under this country’s law, a “person who has unnatural carnal knowledge of … another person of not less than sixteen years of age with the consent of that other person commits a misdemeanor,” an offense punishable on conviction by a maximum three-year prison term.   “Unnatural carnal knowledge” involves “sexual intercourse with a person in an unnatural manner” and requires “the least degree of penetration.”
Guinea
Article 325 of the Penal Code punishes homosexual acts with six months to three years of imprisonment, and a fine of GNF100,000–1,000,000 (about US$14–$143)
Guinea Bissau
The Penal Code of Guinea Bissau does not criminalize homosexual acts.
Kenya
Kenya’s Penal Code criminalizes sodomy. Under this law, a “person who … has carnal knowledge of any person against the order of nature … or permits a male person to have carnal knowledge of him or her against the order of nature” commits a felony, punishable on conviction by a fourteen- year prison term.40   An attempt to commit an unnatural offense, also a crime, is , punishable on conviction by a seven-year prison term.
Lesotho
Sodomy appears to be a common-law crime in Lesotho.  Under the country’s Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act, sodomy is one of the offenses for which a person may be arrested without a warrant.
Liberia
Liberia criminalizes homosexual acts. It makes engaging in voluntary “deviate sexual intercourse” by any person a first-degree misdemeanor, an offense punishable by up to one year in prison.44   The term “deviate sexual intercourse” includes “sexual contact between human beings who are not husband and wife or living together as man and wife though not legally married, consisting of contact between the penis and the anus, the mouth and the penis, or the mouth and vulva.” A sexual contact involves “touching of the sexual or other intimate parts of a person for the purpose of arousing or gratifying a sexual desire.”
Libya
Homosexuality is punished under the Penal Code provision on extramarital sexual relationships.  When consensual, such relationships are punished with imprisonment for up to five years.
Madagascar

No laws against homosexual relations.
Malawi
Malawi criminalizes homosexuality. Anyone who “has carnal knowledge of any person against the order of
nature … or permits a male person to have carnal knowledge of him or her against the order of nature” commits an “unnatural offence,” a felony, on conviction, punishable by a fourteen- year prison term.49   Attempting to commit an “unnatural offence,” also a felony, is punishable on conviction by a seven- year prison term.50   In addition, Malawi criminalizes what it calls “indecent practices.” Anyone who “commits an act of gross indecency with another” in public or in private or “procures” or “attempts to procure” another to commit such act with him/herself or with another person commits a felony and is, on conviction, punishable by a five-year prison term. The term “gross indecency” is not defined.
Mali
No laws against homosexual relations.
Mauritania
Article 308 of the Mauritanian Penal Code punishes homosexual acts by Muslim men with death by stoning. Homosexual acts by two women are punished with three months to two years of imprisonment and a fine of MRO5,000–60,000 about (US$17– $207)
Mauritius
The Criminal Code of Mauritius criminalizes sodomy, stating that “[a]ny person who is guilty of the crime of sodomy ... shall be liable to penal servitude not exceeding 5 years.”
Morocco
Under the Penal Code, any person who “commits lewd or unnatural acts with an individual of the same sex shall be punished with a term of imprisonment of between six months and three years and a fine of 120 to 1,000 dirhams [about US$14.63–$121.94], unless the facts of the case constitute aggravating circumstances.”
Mozambique
The Mozambican Penal Code is silent in regard to criminalization of homosexuality.  However, article 71(4) determines that security measures are applicable to people who habitually practice “acts against nature.” Article 70 of the Penal Code lists the security measures, which include confinement in an insane asylum, confinement in a workhouse or agricultural colony, probation, pledge of good conduct,
and/or disqualification from the practice of a profession. According to the Mozambican government, on December 18, 2013, the Parliament approved by consensus a general draft revision of the Penal Code. It was not possible to determine, however, whether the mentioned provisions were altered.
Namibia
It appears that Namibia criminalizes some homosexual acts.  Although no legislation or other primary source criminalizing homosexuality or homosexual acts was located, some secondary sources indicate that sodomy is a common-law crime in the country. No information on penalties imposed for the commission of this crime was located.
Niger
Homosexual acts appear to be legal, as there does not seem to be any provision of the Penal Code of Niger dealing with these issues.
Nigeria
Nigeria’s federal law criminalizes homosexuality. Anyone who “has carnal knowledge of any person against the order of nature … or permits a male person to have carnal knowledge of him or her against the order of nature” commits an “unnatural offence,” a felony punishable on conviction with a fourteen-year prison term.  An attempt to commit an “unnatural offence,” also a felony, is punishable on conviction by a seven-year prison term.  In addition, Nigeria bans male persons from engaging in what it calls “gross indecency”: procuring or attempting to
procure another male for the commission of gross indecency in public or private. A violation of this ban is a felony punishable on conviction by a three-year prison term. Furthermore, Nigeria prohibits a “public show of same sex amorous relationship directly or indirectly,” the violation of which is, on conviction, punishable by ten years of imprisonment. There are some states that have adopted Sharia law and these states reportedly have imposed the death penalty for homosexual behavior. Nigeria prohibits any form of gay rights advocacy.  The Same Sex Marriage (Prohibition) Act states that the “registration of gay clubs, societies and organizations, their sustenance, processions and meetings is prohibited.” Violation of this provision is punishable on conviction by a ten-year prison.
Rwanda
No laws against homosexual relations.
São Tomé e Príncipe
The new Penal Code enacted in 2012 does not criminalize homosexuality.
Senegal
Homosexual acts are punished with one to two years of imprisonment and a fine of XOF100, 000 –1,500,000 (about US$209–$3,142).
Seychelles
Seychelles appears to prohibit certain homosexual acts.  Its Penal Code bans sodomy, stating that anyone who “has carnal knowledge of any person against the order of nature … or permits a male person to have carnal knowledge of him or her against the order of nature” commits a felony punishable on conviction by a fourteen-year prison
term.
Sierra Leone
It appears that Sierra Leone bans certain homosexual acts.  Although all sources consulted for this report indicate that sodomy is currently illegal in Sierra Leone, they appear to diverge on the question of the source for this law. Some indicate that the prohibition is based on an 1861 English law banning buggery (sodomy and bestiality), introduced in Sierra Leone during the colonial era, which is still in force in the country.75   This law states that “[w] hosoever shall be convicted of the abominable Crime of Buggery, committed with Mankind or any Animal, shall be liable, at the Discretion of the Court, to be kept in Penal Servitude for Life or any Term not less than Ten Years.”  Another source indicates that sodomy is a felony under common law in Sierra Leone.
Somalia
Somalia bans homosexuality.  Its Penal Code states that anyone “who has carnal intercourse with a person of the same sex shall be punished, where the act does not constitute a more serious crime, with imprisonment from three months to three years.  Where the act committed is an act of lust different from carnal intercourse, the punishment shall be reduced by one third.”  In addition, a person convicted for homosexuality may be subject to what is known as a “security measure,” which is a measure imposed on persons deemed “a danger to society,” in the form of police surveillance or deportation (if the person is not a citizen).
South Africa
South Africa abrogated laws criminalizing homosexual conduct, including the common-law crime of sodomy, and legalized same-sex sexual activity in 1998.
South Sudan
South Sudan bans certain homosexual acts.  Its Penal Code prohibits sodomy, stating that a person who has “carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any person or who allows any person to have such intercourse with him or her” commits an “unnatural offence,” punishable on conviction by
up to ten years in prison and a fine.
The crime is complete at penetration.
Sudan
The Penal Code of 1991 states as follows:
Section 148 Sodomy.
(1) Any man who inserts his penis or its equivalent into a woman’s or a man’s anus or permits another man to insert his penis or its equivalent in his anus is said to have committed Sodomy.
(2) (a) Whoever commits Sodomy shall be punished with flogging by one hundred lashes and he shall also be liable to five years’ imprisonment.
(b) If the offender is convicted for the second time he shall be punished with flogging by one hundred lashes and imprisonment for a term which may not exceed five years.
(c) If the offender is convicted for the third time he shall be punished with death or life imprisonment. The Penal Code also provides that anyone who carries out acts considered “indecent or inappropriate to the public morals will be punished by flogging not exceeding 40 times or a fine or both punishments."
Swaziland
No primary source on the legal status of homosexuality or homosexual conduct was located. Secondary sources indicate that sodomy is a common-law crime in Swaziland.86   No information
regarding the penalties imposed for this offense was located.
 Tanzania
Mainland Tanzania criminalizes certain homosexual acts.  The country’s Penal Code bans sodomy and imposes a harsh penalty.  Under this law, anyone who “has carnal knowledge of any person against the order of nature … or permits a male person to have carnal knowledge of him or her against the order of nature” commits a crime punishable on conviction by thirty years to life imprisonment.  An attempt to commit sodomy is also criminalized and is punishable on conviction by a minimum of twenty years of imprisonment.   In addition, the law bans “indecent practices between males”: any male who commits any act of gross indecency with another male, procures another male to commit such act or attempts to procure the commission of such act commits a crime punishable on conviction by a five-year prison term. “Gross indecency” includes a “sexual act that is more than ordinary but falls short of actual intercourse and may include masturbation and indecent physical contact or indecent behavior without any physical contact.”
Togo
Homosexual acts are punished by one to three years of imprisonment and a fine of TZS100, 000–500,000 (about US$210–$1,050).
Tunisia
Sodomy, if not covered by any of the other articles, is punished with imprisonment for three years. In addition, anyone who intentionally and publicly promotes “indecency” is punishable by imprisonment for six month and subject to a fine of 48 dinars (about US$30).
Uganda
Uganda’s Penal Code bans sodomy, stating that anyone who “has carnal knowledge of any person against the order of nature … or permits a male person to have carnal knowledge of him or her against the order of nature” commits a crime punishable on conviction by life in prison.94   An
attempt to commit such crimes, also prohibited, is punishable on conviction by a seven-year prison term.95   In addition, the Penal Code prohibits what it calls “indecent practices” (a term for
which no definition is provided) by any person.
A law adopted by the country’s Parliament on December 20, 2013, and signed by President Yoweri Museveni on February 24, 2014, criminalizes homosexuality and imposes harsh penalties for violations of its provisions.97   Under this law, an offense of homosexuality (which includes sodomy, homosexual oral sex) The recently adopted law uses broad language to ban what it calls the “promotion of homosexuality,” including the use of “electronic devices which include internet, films, [or] mobile phones for the purpose of homosexuality or promoting homosexuality;” engaging in such activity is punishable by five to seven years in prison and/or a fine.101 If the perpetrator of this offense were a juridical person, the operating license would be lost and the person in charge would be subject, on conviction, to a seven-year prison term. form of same-sex sexual activity) is punishable on conviction by a fourteen year prison term.  An attempt to commit such an offense is punishable on conviction by a seven-year prison term. Aggravated homosexuality, which includes recidivism, is punishable by up to life in prison.
Zambia
Zambia’s Penal Code bans sodomy, stating that anyone who “has carnal knowledge of any person against the order of nature…or permits a male person to have carnal knowledge of him or her against the order of nature” commits a crime, on conviction, punishable by fourteen years to life in
prison.104   Attempt, also a crime, is punishable on conviction by a seven- to fourteen-year prison term.105   In addition, the Penal Code prohibits what it calls “indecent practices,” a term for which no definition is provided, by any person, including children under the age of sixteen.106   When the perpetrator of the offense is an adult, he/she is punishable on conviction by seven to fourteen years of imprisonment.107 However, if the perpetrator of this crime is a child, courts are authorized to impose only community service or counseling.
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe prohibits male homosexual conduct.  A male person who, with consent, performs “anal sexual intercourse, or any act involving physical contact other than anal sexual intercourse that would be regarded by a reasonable person to be an indecent act” commits the crime of sodomy, on conviction, punishable up to one year of
imprisonment and/or a fine.


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