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Thursday, February 9, 2012

Republic of Chad, a brief history

The Republic of Chad is located in Central Africa and is Africa's fifth-largest nation with a population of 12.4 million. 


Major languages spoken in Chad are French and Arabic. Chad is 50% Muslim, 35% Christian, 15% animist and other and is characterized has having an Arab-Muslim North region and Christian South region.  The average household income in Chad is $1,940 per person making Chad a lower middle-income African country according the World Bank Standards. Ranking on the 2014 Ibrahim Index of African Governance scale, Chad is ranked as the 49th country out of 52 (Sudan and South Sudan are not measured because the governments are too new) for good governance.

Chad, a brief history
Chad's school children
 Photo by EU Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection
A gradual process of introducing Islam into Chad took place in the 16th and 17th centuries during the kingdoms of the Bagirmi and Ouaddai. In the 1880s, Chad was conquered by the Sudanese warlord Rabih al-Zubair. Chad was first defined as a national territory in 1910, as one of the four making up French Equatorial Africa. Chad was a part of France's African assets until 1960.  Chad suffered three decades of civil warfare, before a shaky balance was restored in 1990. In 1998, an ongoing rebellion in northern Chad, until the government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held presidential elections in 1996 and 2001.

In June 2005 fighting with Sudan began while President of Chad Idriss Deby held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Deby in 2011 was reelected to his fourth term. N'Djamena, the capital of Chad experienced combat from Sudan in 2007- 2008, but fighting is at a standstill in part due to Chad and Sudan January 2010 agreement to prevent other armed groups from using any land in their counties to fight against the other. The agreement also states that Chad and Sudan will establish policies and procedures to jointly monitor and patrol their common border.




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